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created the first psychology research lab and started journals, text books, and degrees


field that focused on classifying structures of the conscious mind


field that focused on consciousness and behavior serve some kind of purpose


James; field influenced by the concept of natural selection


Wundt and Titchener


field that used the method of introspection


field that focused on observable findings between the environment and behavior



Conditioned Reflex

building blocks of behavior


focused on the positive and negative consequences that shape behavior


focused on Dog Salivation Paradigm

Classical Conditioning

using conditioned and unconditioned responses and stimuli to create a new behavior

Operant Conditioning

when the consequences of behavior determine whether the behavior is repeated or not

Fixed Action Pattern

inborn learning; complex behaviors an animal follow through with without any practice or observation of

Critical Period

window of opportunity when a certain type of learning will be easy to learn


said that Behaviorism doesn't account for language


process of formulating specific questions and then finding an answer for better understanding


based on observable evidence


accepting something because it's been around so long


least complicated explanation with the fewest assumption


can be replaced by a better explanation


Where something in a brain occurs; damage and activation

Electrical Activation

Single cell recording, EEG, ERP

Structure Imaging Technology


Function Imaging Technology


Wernike Area

area of the brain that deals with the comprehension of words

Broca Area

area of the brain that deals with speech


electrodes put on the scalp to record neuron firing


multiple x-rays combined to show slices of the brain


using hydrogen atoms and magnets to show an image


measures blood flow to the brain

Cerebral Cortex

Cells that cover the outside of the brain separated into two hemispheres


hemisphere for verbal processes, language, speech, reading and writing


hemisphere for nonverbal processes, musical, and visual recognition

Inverse Projection Problem

recovering three dimensional images from a two dimensional projection


amount of light hitting the eye

Frame of Reference

position of orientation of an object is always defiend relative to something else


the lens of the eyes changes shape to focus on an image


as the object gets closer the eyes cross


cue to distance based on the fact that each eye gets a different view

Familiar Size

experience causes us to interpret objects as the size they normally would be


when objects overlap the smaller one is perceived as behind the full one

Texture Gradient

greater separation and detail when objects are closer

Linear Perspective

convergence of lines assumed to be parallel but in reality provide a distant cue

Relative Height

even when similar objects are far away we assume they are the same size

Atmospheric Perspective

objects in the background look fuzzier and blueish because of dust and water particles

Computational Approach

environment information must me made sense of mentally

Ecological Approach

the environment provides the information without a strain mentally

Bottom Up Processing

starting with smaller details and working towards the larger picture

Top Down Processing

starting with the big picture then working down to the smaller details

Template Theory

comparing what you see to images in your mind

Feature-matching Theory

representation of images are because of a list of features

Object Centered Theory

mental representation of what an object looks like relative to the object itself; recognize parts

Good Continuation

points are seen as a straight or curved line instead of separate objects

Biederman's Theory

there are 36 different geons of shapes everything is made out of

What How Hypothesis

the visual system segregates what objects are and how to manipulate them


mechanism for continued processing to focus in and tune out

Inattentional Blindness

not being able to perceive things in plain sight

Continuous Task

task where there is no beginning or end with a steady stream of stimuli

Discrete Task

task where there is a noticeable beginning and end

Multiple Resource Theory

attention is composed of a number of attentional pools dedicated to a certain task

Automatic Process

process that takes few or no attentional resources and that happens without intention

Flanker Effect

stimuli that appear to the sides of a target and that participants are to ignore, affect behavior

Change Blindness

when a person fails to detect large changes in a scene

Dichotic Listening

listening to two different conversations at once, while focusing on one


one of the first early attentional filter model theorists

Late Attentional Theory

attention acts as a filter late in the processing system using indirect measures

Movable Filter Theory

filter than be used early or late in the processing system depending on the needs

Disjunctive Search

search where the target differs from others on just one feature and requires little or no attention

Conjunctive Search

search where target differs from other because of two or more features and requires attention

Ironic Process of Mental Control

attending to something you don't want to

Operating Process

seeking mental contents that are consistent with what you want to think about

Monitoring Process

searching for processes that are inconsistent; doesn't require attention


ability to maintain attention to a task in which a stimuli appear infrequently

Structural Explanation

interference between two tasks caused by competition for mental structures , not attentional resources

Parallel Performance

attention being distributed to more than one task

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