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76 terms

Cognitive Psych Test 1

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Wundt
created the first psychology research lab and started journals, text books, and degrees
Structuralism
field that focused on classifying structures of the conscious mind
Functionalism
field that focused on consciousness and behavior serve some kind of purpose
Functionalism
James; field influenced by the concept of natural selection
Structuralism
Wundt and Titchener
Structuralism
field that used the method of introspection
Behaviorism
field that focused on observable findings between the environment and behavior
Behaviorism
Watson
Conditioned Reflex
building blocks of behavior
Skinner
focused on the positive and negative consequences that shape behavior
Pavlov
focused on Dog Salivation Paradigm
Classical Conditioning
using conditioned and unconditioned responses and stimuli to create a new behavior
Operant Conditioning
when the consequences of behavior determine whether the behavior is repeated or not
Fixed Action Pattern
inborn learning; complex behaviors an animal follow through with without any practice or observation of
Critical Period
window of opportunity when a certain type of learning will be easy to learn
Chomsky
said that Behaviorism doesn't account for language
Science
process of formulating specific questions and then finding an answer for better understanding
Empirical
based on observable evidence
Tenacity
accepting something because it's been around so long
Parsimonious
least complicated explanation with the fewest assumption
Tentative
can be replaced by a better explanation
Localization
Where something in a brain occurs; damage and activation
Electrical Activation
Single cell recording, EEG, ERP
Structure Imaging Technology
CAT and MRI
Function Imaging Technology
PET, fMRI
Wernike Area
area of the brain that deals with the comprehension of words
Broca Area
area of the brain that deals with speech
EEG
electrodes put on the scalp to record neuron firing
CT
multiple x-rays combined to show slices of the brain
MRI
using hydrogen atoms and magnets to show an image
PET
measures blood flow to the brain
Cerebral Cortex
Cells that cover the outside of the brain separated into two hemispheres
Left
hemisphere for verbal processes, language, speech, reading and writing
Right
hemisphere for nonverbal processes, musical, and visual recognition
Inverse Projection Problem
recovering three dimensional images from a two dimensional projection
Luminance
amount of light hitting the eye
Frame of Reference
position of orientation of an object is always defiend relative to something else
Accommodation
the lens of the eyes changes shape to focus on an image
Convergence
as the object gets closer the eyes cross
Stereopsis
cue to distance based on the fact that each eye gets a different view
Familiar Size
experience causes us to interpret objects as the size they normally would be
Occolusion
when objects overlap the smaller one is perceived as behind the full one
Texture Gradient
greater separation and detail when objects are closer
Linear Perspective
convergence of lines assumed to be parallel but in reality provide a distant cue
Relative Height
even when similar objects are far away we assume they are the same size
Atmospheric Perspective
objects in the background look fuzzier and blueish because of dust and water particles
Computational Approach
environment information must me made sense of mentally
Ecological Approach
the environment provides the information without a strain mentally
Bottom Up Processing
starting with smaller details and working towards the larger picture
Top Down Processing
starting with the big picture then working down to the smaller details
Template Theory
comparing what you see to images in your mind
Feature-matching Theory
representation of images are because of a list of features
Object Centered Theory
mental representation of what an object looks like relative to the object itself; recognize parts
Good Continuation
points are seen as a straight or curved line instead of separate objects
Biederman's Theory
there are 36 different geons of shapes everything is made out of
What How Hypothesis
the visual system segregates what objects are and how to manipulate them
Attention
mechanism for continued processing to focus in and tune out
Inattentional Blindness
not being able to perceive things in plain sight
Continuous Task
task where there is no beginning or end with a steady stream of stimuli
Discrete Task
task where there is a noticeable beginning and end
Multiple Resource Theory
attention is composed of a number of attentional pools dedicated to a certain task
Automatic Process
process that takes few or no attentional resources and that happens without intention
Flanker Effect
stimuli that appear to the sides of a target and that participants are to ignore, affect behavior
Change Blindness
when a person fails to detect large changes in a scene
Dichotic Listening
listening to two different conversations at once, while focusing on one
Broadbent
one of the first early attentional filter model theorists
Late Attentional Theory
attention acts as a filter late in the processing system using indirect measures
Movable Filter Theory
filter than be used early or late in the processing system depending on the needs
Disjunctive Search
search where the target differs from others on just one feature and requires little or no attention
Conjunctive Search
search where target differs from other because of two or more features and requires attention
Ironic Process of Mental Control
attending to something you don't want to
Operating Process
seeking mental contents that are consistent with what you want to think about
Monitoring Process
searching for processes that are inconsistent; doesn't require attention
Vigilance
ability to maintain attention to a task in which a stimuli appear infrequently
Structural Explanation
interference between two tasks caused by competition for mental structures , not attentional resources
Parallel Performance
attention being distributed to more than one task