Nutrition practice 1 q18 part 1

Which of the following foods are highest in iorn?
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when teaching a patient about fresh foods, the nurse will discus that the best method to preserve nutrients is:steamingThe nurse caring for a Muslim patient recognizes that appropriate dietary suggestions to offer this patient include:Chicken and ricethe nurse is caring for a patient who fasts during daylight hours during Ramadan, the nurse recognizes that the patient is adhering to the cultural beliefs of which culture?MuslimA nurse id caring for a patient who is a Latter Day saint should recognize that this patient drink preference is:fruit juiceDuring Passover, the nurse caring for an Orthodox Jewish patient should:allow time for prayerA nurse for an Orthodox Jewish patient should recognize that dietary requirements for this patient include:use of separate cooking utensils for meat and milk products.The nurse reminds a vegetarian that he must supplement his diet or he will be deficient in vitamin:B12the nurse stresses that nutrients are part of a combination of all chemical processes that take place in the body to regulate body processes. This basic process is called:MetabolismWhich of the following is the best method to preserve food nutrients?Avoid very high temperatures, long cooking times, and keep foods hot for an extended time, such as in a buffet line. Consuming vitamin C rich foods at the same meal with iron-containing foodsthe Nurse is calculating the client's fluid intake for the shift, What is the total intake for this client? 4oz cranberry juice 3 oz chocolate milk 6 oz pureed chicken 10 oz chicken broth23ozAn adult client had iron deficiently anemia. She started taking iron supplements but is also trying to increase iron absorption. Which of the following will enhance iron absorption?consuming vitamin C rich foods at the same meal with iron-containing foodswhich dietary source is am example of a simple disaccharide?Table sugarWhich type of oil is an example of a polyunsaturated fatty acid?CornKwashiorkor is a severe state of malnutrition resulting from a deficiency of which nutrient?ProteinKosher dietary laws include which of the following?Use of separate cooking utensils for meat and dairy, no consumption of food or any derivatives from animals slaughtered in according to Jewish law, no mixing meat and milk at a mealA nurse is educating a client on diet and exercise guidelines using the USDA guidelines the nurse explains that ———- minutes per day exercise is recommended for optimal health.30A nurse understands that a Catholic religion client observing Lent will not be able to eat which of the following food?BeefThe elderly may have decreased taste and smell which action would be appropriate to make food more appealing?Very food flavors utilizing seasonings and spicesIncreasing bone mineral density during adulthood reduces the risk of developing which of the following conditions?OsteoporosisWhich of the following activities or most likely provide aerobic exerciseWalkingSelect foods that have the richest content in vitamin C select all that apply1 cup fresh orange juice, one cup fresh strawberries, one fresh green pepperWhich of the following foods are most likely to raise cholesterol levels?High in saturated fatsThe nurse is caring for a client newly diagnosed with hypertension upon discharge, the client expresses dissatisfaction with the low sodium diet ordered and insist on adding salt to the food. Which of the following facts should the nurse emphasize during dietary patient teaching.Sodium contributes to hypertensionNutrition among adolescents is frequently deficient due to eating fast food. The school nurse encourages intake of food containing:Iron and calciumNurse is educating a client with a low immune system on foods high in vitamin C which of the following food will the nurse encourage the client to consume?Kiwis, orangesIron deficient client asked the nurse which foods are high in iron. Which of the following foods will the nurse recommend?Meat, legumesA seven day Adventist may not have which of the following drinks?Coca-ColaCalculate the total fluid intake in milliliters of this clear liquid lunch use numbers only. Apple juice 8 fluid ounces hot tea 8 fluid ounces chicken broth 8 fluid ounces?720Severe burn, tissue healing?Peanut butter and hamburgerDesirable cholesterol in adult less than?200 mgReduce risk of hypertension in order adults?Sodium 1200 mg/ dayDeficiency iron anemia?Consume vitamin cSimple disaccharide?Table sugarPolyunsaturated oil?Corn oilSevere malnutrition?Protein4-6 months of age, solid food introduced?Fortified cerealSource of protein?NutsIncrease fiber to help blood cholesterol?Choosing food that are closer to whole state rather than refined/processedSubstitute unsaturated fat with saturated fat in a diet?Tropical oil and hydrogenated fat that are solid at room temperaturePlanning pregnancy, recommend folic acidPrevent neutral tube defectelectrolytes responsible for dysrhythmia?PotassiumPancreatic disorder, clotting disorder, inability to utilize vitamin?KImportance of stored fat to insulate body and protect organsAdiposeDietary allowance?Dietary reference intake (DRI)Catholic religion?Meat, beefDecrease taste and sense of smell. Appropriate food?BerriesCalcium deficiency and bone density?OsteoporosisFats, oils, and sweets should be what percent of your total daily kilocalories?Less than 10%What is my pyramid?A personalized guide to daily food choices and number of servingsWhat key concepts does MyPyramid emphasize regarding activity and eating?Activity, moderation, variety, proportionality, and at least 30 minutes of daily exercise to balance nutrition intakeWhat replaced recommend daily allowance"?Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)What are essential nutrients?essential nutrients are those that our bodies cannot make an amount necessary for good healthCarbohydrates and proteins4 kacl/gfat9kcal/gAlcohol (not an essential nutrient) provides 7 kcal/gNutrients that help build and repair tissue?Protein:builds and repairs tissue, calcium, phosphorus: bone structure, iron: RBC, and fat: building and repairing and in all cell walls.builds and repairs tissue, calcium, phosphorus: bone structure, iron: RBC, and fat: building and repairing and in all cell walls.Glycogenwhat serves as a cushion to protect the organs and insulates the body?Adipose tissueWhat is glycogen?The body's storage form of carbohydrates.What are saturated fatty acids?Generally of animal origin and solid at room temperature.The intake of saturated fatty acids increases what?Saturated fatty acids increase blood cholesterol levels and the risk of arteriosclerosis. Unsaturated fatty acids Usually have plant sources and are liquid at room temperature. they are thought to have a blood cholesterol lowering effect at moderate levels of intake.How are fats digested?That must be emulsified by bile to be digested.How many of the 22 amino acids are considered essential amino acid?Only nine are considered essential amino acids.How are the nine essential amino acids obtained?The nine essential amino acids must be obtained through the diet.What are 2 kinds of proteins?Incomplete proteins and complete proteins.What are complete proteins?Complete proteins contain all nine essential amino acids in a sufficient quantity and ratio for the bodies need. Generally of animal origin.What are incomplete proteins?Incomplete proteins lack in one or more of the essential amino acids. They are of plant origin.What vitamins are vegans deficient in without supplementation?Unless vegans supplement their diet, they will be deficient in vitamin b12. B12 is found in animal products.What is Anabolism?A positive nitrogen balance exists when more nitrogen is taken in than is excreted. In this situation, the body is building more tissue then it is breaking down. this is called anabolism. Amino acids are chemically changed and converted to fat and stored as adipose tissue.S&S of vitamin and mineral toxicity?Fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and headache.Individuals with difficulty metabolizing fat such as individuals with pancreatic disorders May be prone to what?May be prone to clotting disorders as well as have problems utilizing fat soluble vitamins.Someone who has had a partial gastrectomy needs supplementation of what vitamin?vitamin B12.Increased sodium Na+ may contribute to what?Hypertensionsodium attracts water causing fluid retention. Hypovolemia increases the hearts workload which can lead to what?Can lead to heart attack especially in those with CHF.An alteration in Potassium K+ may lead to what?may lead to muscle weakness, arrhythmias, and erratic pulse.what is the recommended Kcal per day during lactation?An additional 500 Kcal Per day. Also need to increase fluid intake.what is the recommended food choices for a 4 to 6 month old infant?At 4 to 6 months of age, single-ingredient Foods should be Chosen and introduced one at a time. Foods with high iron Content recommended, such as fortified cereal.What are Common dietary inadequacies during adolescence?Iron and Calcium.What nutrients is a full liquid diet lacking?A-full liquid diet is More nutritionally complete than a clear liquid diet but is still lacking in some nutrients such as iron and fiber.what is the normal BMI?Normal is 18.5 - 24.9, these individuals are considered low health risk.Individuals with anorexia nervosa?Individuals have an intense drive for thinness, an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. They exercise excessively, vicarious enjoyment of food, and a distorted body image.Diabetes mellitus...carbohydrate intake should be monitored and controlled. Carbohydrate counting is an important diabetic diet tool.what is the diet therapy for dumping syndrome?Diet therapy involves giving small frequent meals that are higher in protein and fat and lower in carbohydrates.what are the symptoms of lactose intolerance?symptoms occur upon the ingestion of milk products and include nausea, Cramps, bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea.Protein restricted diet. In the presence of defects in protein metabolism or excretion, protein should be what?Protein intake should reduced or controlled.Examples of conditions that need a protein restricted diet?Chronic renal failure and cirrhosis of the liver.A source of foods that can be substituted for protein to provide energy is what?PotatoesWhat is one way to ease thirst on a patient with fluid restrictions?Sucking on ice chipsWhat route is a nasogastric tube feeding?Enteral routeTPN is administration of hypertonic solution into the....Superior vena cavaWhat is nutrition?Nutrition is the total of all processes involved in the taking in and utilization of food substances for proper growth, functioning, and maintenance of health.What is the nurses role in promoting nutrition?Helping the patient understand the importance of the diet and encouraging dietary compliance, serving meals, assisting some patients with eating, weighing patients, recording I&O, reporting signs of poor nutrition, and serving as a communication link.For treatment of obesity...Diet should be low in fat and have an energy level that does not exceed expenditure. What is the recommended daily exercise? At least 30 minutes every day.Adipose tissue is what?Adipose tissue is the body's storage form of fat. It helps insulate the body from temperature extremes and serves as a cushion to protect organs and other tissues. Fat provides a feeling of fullness and adds flavor and aroma to foods.What is the function of protein?Proteins provide the building blocks for blood in bone, they are a structural part of every cell. Proteins are essential for tissue growth, repair, and wound healing.What is the function of minerals?Minerals differ from vitamins in that they are inorganic and they are single elements rather than compound. Minerals are similar to vitamins in that they help regulate body functions without providing energy and are essential to good health.What are the major minerals?major minerals are those needed in amounts greater than 100 milligrams per day. calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, sodium, potassium, and chloride.What are the trace minerals?Trace minerals are needed in much smaller amounts. Iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum.What is the function of iron?Part of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Necessary for oxygen transport and use in the body. energy metabolism.What is a sodium restricted diet used for?Sodium restricted diet may be used to treat hypertension, water retention, edema, and congestive heart failure.What are the six classes of essential nutrients?Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water.What three essential nutrients provide energy?Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.What does high cholesterol levels do to your body?High LDL cholesterol levels can cause atherosclerosis by contributing to plack build up on the artery walls. HDL cholesterol helps transport cholesterol from the bloodstream to the liver where it can be excreted.What is emulsification?In order for fat to be digested it has to be modified, or broken down into smaller globules. Bile a secretion of the liver and is necessary to emulsify fat. Once fats are emulsified, the body is able to break down and absorb them.What does vitamin K do for the body?Vitamin K plays a role in blood clotting. A large fluctuations in vitamin K intake may alter the effects of anti coagulation drugs.Thiazide (loop) diuretics deplete what from the body along with escess water?Potassium. Patients on Lasix also need to be on a potassium supplement.What are some food sources high in proteins?Milk, cheese, eggs, meat, grains, legumes, nuts, and soy products.What is possible after surgery in which a portion or all of the stomach is removed?Dumping syndrome.What is azotemia?In renal failure the kidneys are unable to excrete protein waste products. These waste products build up in the bloodstream leading to a condition known as azotemia.The nurse makes nutrition a focus in the care plan. Where does nutrition play the most important role?Health MaintenanceNutrition is the total of all processes involved in taking in and using food substances for proper growth, functioning, and maintenance of health.The nurse is explaining the activity recommendations from the USDA's new MyPlate plan. What is the minimum amount of moderate weekly exercise needed to balance nutritional intake?2 hours and 30 minutesMyPlate recommends a minimum of 2 hours and 30 minutes of moderate aerobic physical activity a week to balance nutritional intake and 1 hour and 15 minutes of vigorous physical activity a week.What are elements that are found in food and necessary for good health but that the body cannot make?Essential NutrientsElements found in food that our bodies cannot make are essential nutrients.To demonstrate the energy-producing potential of different foods, the nurse explains that 3 g of lean meat produces 12 kcal/g. How many kcal/g does 3 g of fish oil produce?27 kcal/g,Fat provides 9 kcal/g.What has replaced the USDAs recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)?Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)How many kcal/g does 1 g of alcohol provide?7 kcal/gThe nurse is educating a group of highschool students regarding nutrition. How should the nurse respond when the student ask what occurs when protein, mineral, iron, and fat combine?Tissue is built and repairedMany nutrients are necessary to build and repair tissue, including protein, minerals, iron, and fat.When reviewing a patients dietary intake, the nurse recommends that sugar consumption be reduced to the recommended daily level. What is this level?No more than 8% of total daily kilocaloriesDRIs relating to carbohydrates indicate that 45% to 65% of an adult's total calorie intake should be in the form of carbohydrates and that added sugars should be limited to no more than 8% (approximately 40 g) of the total number of calories consumed dailyWhat is the bodys storage from carbohydrates, usually found in the liver with some storage in the muscles?GlycogenGlycogen is not generally consumed in the diet but is the body's storage form of carbohydrate. It is found mainly in the liver, with some storage in the muscles.What is the term for stored fat that insulates the body and serves as a cushion to protect organs?Adipose TissueThe nurse is providing information about high cholesterol levels. What is the rationale for avoiding saturated fats?They increase blood cholesterolWhen discussing the digestion and metabolism of fat, the nurse tells the patient who has a history of cholecystitis and who is on a low-fat diet that fat must be emulsified to be digested. What is the substance necessary for emulsification?Bile-Bile is necessary to emulsify fat.The body uses 22 common amino acids, but 9 of them be obtained from protein in the diet. What are these proteins considered?EssentialEssential amino acids must be consumed in the diet, because the body cannot make them.The nurse is educating a patient on vegan diet. What supplement will the nurse encourage this patient to take to avoid a deficiency?B12A fit, young women was at zero nitrogen balance. The nurse discovers that this patient is now pregnant with her first child. For what is this patient at risk?AnabolismWhen more nitrogen is consumed than is excreted, anabolism occurs. This is also called a positive nitrogen balance.The nurse explains that a patient with a heart problem should follow a decreased sodium diet. What will this diet help reduce the risk for or prevent?Heart AttacksSodium attracts water and causes fluid retention. Hypervolemia increases the heart'sworkload, which can lead to a heart attack.The patient complains to the nurse that he feels terrible since he has been taking several different kinds of vitamin preparations. What should the nurse assess forFatigueindications of vitamin toxicity?Fatigue