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121 terms

pediatrics (irsc)

STUDY
PLAY
American psychoanalyst created the stages of psychosocial development?
Erik Erikson
When does teething begin?
5-6 monthes of age
what is the oral hygeine for the young infant?
sips of clear water, wiping and massaging infants gums.
What can help prevent bottle mouth syndrome?
avoid putting anything but water in night-time bottles
At what age does the child have a vocabulary of about 300 words.
age 2
Rule of the thumb about the revolution of early speech?
number of words in a response corresponds with there age
What is the average apical rate of a two year old?
120
Why should you never prop a bottle for a child?
This could lead to aspiration
Schema?
knowledge structure that allows a child to mentally organize ways to behave in there immediate enviroment.
at what age does (sids) occurences peak?
2-3 monthes
Play that captures the the use of senses and motor skills?
sensorimotor play
what is the leading cause of death in infants and small children?
accidents
at what age are all 20 deciduous teeth present?
2.5
At what age can you expect a child to hopp?
3
childre meet the maturity necessary to begin toilet training at what age?
18-24 monthes
preoperational thought stage?
period of early childhood when the child focuses on the use of language as a tool to meet there needs
Toddlers need how many ounces of milk a day?
24
Deeper male voice in adolesence results from the enlargement of?
The larynx
The infant produces this substance which decreases surface tension within the alveoli and permits inflation.
surfactant
Apgar scoring is done at what time of the childs birth?
one and five minutes
Apgar score?
0-10 ( 8-10 is optimal)
what is the criteria used in apgar scoring?
HR, respiratory, muscle tone, reflex irritability, skin color
what are the characteristics of normal amniotic fluid?
pale straw colored, lanugo, watery, no strong odor, 400 ml, at 20 weeks, 1000ml at 36-38 weeks
hydramnios?
excessive amount of amniotic fluid
oligohydramnios?
less than 300 ml of amniotic fluid in third trimester
What should you suction first when using the bulb syringe?
mouth at the corners. nasal passages one nostril at a time
Most newborns need bathing how often?
every other day
when bathing newborns you should rinse shampoo well to prevent what?
cradle cap
how long should you spnge bathe a newborn?
7-10 days until umbillical cord comes off
How often should you clense the penis after a gomco or morgan clamped circumcision?
q 4hrs with warm water apply petroleum jelly gauze
what is the length of time for breast feeding?
10-15 minutes per breast
How long can breast milk be safely stored in the refrigerator?
24-48 hours
how often should the newborn be burped after breast feeding?
every 0.5 to 1 ounce of milk
After feeding which side should the baby be positioned to prevent regurgitation?
right side
which tests should be performed on all newborns?
phenylketonuria, biotinidase and thyroid testing
milia?
small white spots on the nose and chin, a result of occluded sebaceous glands
newborn rash?
( erythema toxicum neonatorum ) elevated hive like rash, small whte vessels
telangiectatic nevi?
Stork bites! flat pink marks on eyelids, nose or nape of neck
mongolian spots?
increased pogmentation in the lumbar dorsal area bluish black in color and more common in dark skinned people
nevus flammeus?
port wine stain, often seen on the face. angioma requires medical attention to remove.
strawberry birthmarks?
nevus vasculosus, capillary hemangiomas, eventually disappear early in childhood
acrocyanosis?
hands and feet may appear slightly blue caused by poor peripheral circulation lasting 7-10 days, more apparent when the infant becomes cold.
harlequin sign?
half of the newborns body appears red and they other half pale as a result of vasomotor disturbance. vessels dilate and others constrict.
icterus neonatorum?
deposits of bile pigments as seen in jaundice. ( abnormal during the first 24 hours )
vernix caseosa?
yellowish white cream cheese like substance protecting the infants skin against amniotic fluid.
fontanelles?
broad area of soft spots consisting of connective tissue
anterior fontanelle?
large and diamond shaped and closes at 18 monthes
posterior fontanelle?
small triangular shape and closes at 2 monthes
molding?
overlapping of the bones skull, and the head appears elongated
caput succedaneum?
edema in the soft tissue of the scalp seen in molding
cephalhematoma?
caused by bleeding within the periosteum of a cranial bone
epsteins pearls?
small white nodules that may be observed on the hard palate
a fungal infection may be acquired during passage through the birth canal if the mother is infected with?
candida albicans
two types of antifungal medications used for thrush?
nystatin, gentian violet
opthalmia neonatorum?
infection of the neonates eyes usually resulting from gnorrheal when passing thru the birth canal
strabismus?
crossed eyes
nystagmus?
abnormal motion of the eyes
newborns are born with which eye condition?
nearsighted and can see objects best at eight to ten inches
low set ears in newborns may indicate what?
a chromosomal disorder
the umbilicus is whitish blue gray with which 3 vessels?
one vein and two arteries
the umbillicus contains a gelatinous tissue called?
whartons jelly
A two vessel cord may indicate what?
congenital anomalies
when does the umbillical cord fall off?
10-14 days
when should the cord clamp be removed?
24 hours if it is dry
pseudomenstuation?
discharge of blood tinged mucus from the vagina, may occur in response to maternal hormones
gynecomastia?
enlarged breasts of the newborn, result of maternal hormones
cryptorchidism?
testicles that are not descended in preterm infants
syndactyly?
malformation of digits commonly seen as webbing or fusion of two more digits
polydactyly?
extra digits
simian line in the palm of the hand may indicate which chromosomal disorder?
down syndrome
conception or fertilization
development is considered a lifelong process that begins when?
growth from head to toe
cephalocaudal?
growth from the center outward
proximodistal?
the continuous replacement of cells,tissues and fluids
The changes we undergo throughout life include?
genetics
Growth patterns are controlled by what?
increase of size in whole or in parts
growth?
function from simple to complex
development?
chromosomes
the blueprint for all inherited traits is contained in?
23 pairs= 46
After fertilization the zygote contains how many chromosomes?
chromosomes
threadlike structures in the nucleus of the cell that function in the transmission of genetic information?
familly
What is the basic unit os society?
substance that interferes with normal prenatal development causing one or more developmental abnormalities
teratogen?
cohabitation
social contract familly is also referrred to as?
unequal-parents attempt to control children with strict rigid rules
autocratic familly pattern?
adult male assumes dominant role
patriarchal familly pattern?
adult female assumes dominant role
matriarchal familly pattern?
wedding till birth of first child
establishment stage?
last stage of life cycle
senescence stage?
trust vs mistrust
infancy developmental task?
autonomy vs shame and doubt
toddler developmental task?
initiative vs guilt
preschool developmental task?
industry vs inferiority
school age developmental task?
identity vs role confusion
adolescence developmental task?
intimacy vs isolation
young adulthood developmental task?
generativity vs stagnation
middle adulthood developmental task?
ego integrity vs dispair
late adulthood developmental task?
(sensorimotor ) senses, motor abilities and reflexes, schema, object permanence,mental representation, goal directed behavior
cognitive develoment birth to two years?
( preoperational ) egocentric thinking, trial and error, time is present time only, symbols represent objects, intuitive thinking, imagination, gradually becomes less egocentric
cognitive development 2 to 6 years?
( concrete operational ) realistic views, improved memory, multitask, cause and effect, behavior outcomes, conversationa and number classification
cognitive development for 7 to 11 years?
( formal operational ) scientific problem solving, past, present, future, hypothetic situations, interest in ethics, politics, social and moral issues
cognitive development for 12 plus
two or three words, sounds of animals
normal language for a one year old?
two or three word phrases, 300 words, i me and you
normal language for a two year old?
four or five word sentences, 900 words, who, what and where
normal language for a three year old?
1500-2100 words, complete sentences
normal language for a 4-5 year old?
3000 words, comprehends if because and why
normal language for a 6-7 year old?
respiratory system, cerebral cortex, mouth and nasal cavities
speech requires intact physiologic functioning of what?
intact and discriminating auditory apparatus, intelligence, need to communicate, stimulation
language requires what?
school age
peer relationships become significant at what age?
adolescence
at what age is considered the transitional period?
sex linked, inherited disorder, skelatol muscle wasting, most severe and common, and the onset begins between 2 and 4 years old
duchenne's muscular dystrophy?
positioned on all fours and uses hands to walk up thighs
gowers sign?
rarely live past 20, resulting from cardiac or respiratory complications
what is the prognosis or duchennes muscular dystrophy?
electromyogram, elevated serum creatine, elevated aspartate aminotransferase (emg, cpk, ast) and muscle biopsy
what are the diagnostic tests used for duchennes muscular dystrophy?
a perception that the practices of ones own culture are superior to others
ethnocentrism?
immunizing agent from detoxified tetanus toxin that produces an antigenic response to the body
tetanus toxoid?
engagement, establishment, expectant, parenthood,disengagement, senescence
what are the stages of familly development?
negotiation, compromise, and growth
The democratic familly patern favors what three things?
type of hemolytic anemia
erythroblastosis fetalis?
maternal blood measures the number of maternal antibodies
indirect coombs test?
after delivery, on infant blood to determine antibody coated RBC's
direct coombs test?
source of heat unique to neonates that is capable of greater thermogenic activity than ordinary fat---found around adrenals, kidneys neck, scapulae, and behind the sternum
brown fat?