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Incident Safety Officer Complete Set

Ch 5. 1.What are three things that need to be acquired to front-load for the ISO function?
1. NFPA 1021: standard on fire officer professional qualifications
2. Additional knowledge and skills
3. Certain attitude
Ch 5. 2.Discuss the concept of mastery and it's benefit to the ISO.
Mastery: 90/90 rule - 90% objective 90% of the time. Ability to perform with a certain unconscious competence. ISO needs to address important issues with a wealth of knowledge.
Ch 5. 3.How are efficiency and effectiveness different?
Effectiveness: doing the right things. Learning part.
Efficiency: doing things right - performance part.
Ch 5. 4.What is the essential difference between learning and performance.
Learning: is the aquisition of knowledge, skills
Performance: demonstration of aquired knowlege and skills
Ch 5. 5.Describe the relationship among knowledge, skill, and attitude.
Knowledge: bring knowledge into application without supervision. Recognize situations
Skills: intellectual tasks such as hazard reduction, and problem solving. Determine, predict, implement
Attitude: gain knowledge and skills to shape an attitude that supports the reduction of injury and death
Ch 5. 6.To check your attitude, what three questions can be asked of yourself?
1. What do I know about this?
2. How do I feel about it?
3. How should I handle it to show a concern for safety?
Ch 6. 1.What are the three ways loads are imposed on materials?
1. Axial load: on the beam
2. Eccentric load: middle of deck
3. Torsion load: sides of deck, take twisted torsion
Ch 6. 2.List three types of forces created when loads are imposed on materials.
1. Compression: push both sides on a beam
2. Tension: pulls on a structural member
3. Shear: load transferee to another structure member
Ch 6. 3.What is the definition of a beam?
A structural element that delivers loads perpendicularly to it's imposed load is called a beam.
Ch 6. 4.Explain the effects of fire on steel structural elements.
Cold drawn steel loses 55% at 800F
Extruded steel loses 50% at 1100F
At 1000F steel elongates 10 inches
Ch 6. 5.How does a masonry wall achieve strength?
Compressive strength using motar. No tensil or shear strength.
Ch 6. 6.List and define the five common types of building construction.
Type 1: Fire-Resistive, approved noncombustable, concrete encased steel, monolithic poured cement, steel spray on fire protection. Large multiple-story-hard to fight rely on no collapse.
Type 2: Noncombustible, less rating-steel not coated makes for collapse. Warehouses, small arenas, newer churches. Building do not burn but heat causes collapse.
Type 3: Ordinary, load bearing walls noncombustable masonry with wood floors, ceilings, structure members. Taxpayer, now strip malls. Spreaders-void spaces.
Type 4: Heavy Timber, masonary exterior walls with 8"" wood laminated beams for structure, floor, roof. Warehouses, older churches, manufactoring.
Type 5: Wood frame, new homes, small business, chain hotels built with wood.
Ch 6. 7.What is a hybrid building? List several types.
Combine 2 types of construction. Expect rapid collapse due to low mass high surface to mass exposure of structural elements.
Ch 6. 8.List in order, the five step analytical approach to predicting building collapse.
1. Classify the construction type
2. Determine structural involvement
3. Visualize and trace loads
4. Evaluate time
5. Predict and communicate collapse potential
Ch 6. 9.List several factors that accelerate the time that a structural element will fail under fire conditions.
1. Lighter structural elements
2. Heavier imposed load
3. No time window for construction
4. Brown dark smoke light weight times up
5. Gravity and time are constant, resistance is not
Ch 7. 1.What is smoke?
The products of incomplete combustion that includes an aggregate of solids, areosols, and fire gases that are toxic, flammable, and volatile.
Ch 7. 2.List common hostile fire events and their associated warning signs.
Flashover: turbulent smoke flow, rollover, autoignition outside.
Backdraft: yellowish gray smoke, bowing black stained windows, signs of extreme heat on outside.
Smoke explosion: smoke trapped above fire, signs of growing fire, pressurizing.
Rapid fire spread: increase in smoke spread, smoke flowing from hallways faster than firefighter can move.
Ch 7. 3.What are the four attributes of smoke?
1. Volume: sets stage for offgassing in a given space.
2. Velocity: speed, means pressure. Heat or smoke volume. Box cannot absorb any more heat-precussor to flashover.
3. Density: thickness, how much fuel laden in the smoke.
4. Color: distance to a fire, white new, black hot unburned.
Ch 7. 4.How do the four smoke attributes contribute to the understanding of fire behavior within a building?
Determine the location, stage, and spread potential of a fire.
Ch 7. 5. What is meant by the term "Black Fire?"
Describe smoke that is high volume, turbulent velocity, ultra dense, and deep black. Charring, heat damage to steel, content destruction, victim death. Over 1000F. No FF should be near it. Vent and Cool.
Ch 7. 6. Explain how influencing factors can affect smoke attributes.
Weather: temperature, humidity, wind change
Thermal Balance: sucking, puffing and breathing smoke into the building indicate rapid fire with increased air.
Container size: Light, thin smoke showing from more than one opening of a very large building is a significant observation.
Firefighting efforts:Color of smoke should change with efforts, if not you're not getting the job done. PPV - if smoke become blacker and thicker it is making conditions worse.
Ch 7. 7.List the three steps of the reading smoke process.
1. View the Volume: velocity, density, color of smoke - compare from where smoke is emitting, indicates fire size, location, spread potential.
2. Analyze the contributing factors: affect volume, velocity, density, color - should refine and or confirm your read.
3. Rate of change of each attribute: measured in seconds, you got a problem.
Ch 8. 1.Describe the difference between Dangerous and Risky.
From the community perspective we believe firefighting to be inherently dangereous. From the fire service perspective the risks of many specific dangers are well known.
Ch 8. 2. List the three influences on risk-taking values.
Community Expectations: the community sees firefighters risking their lives and expect similar response in their emergencies.
Fire Service Standards: NFPA 1500, 1561, 1521 - risk a life to save a known life, Perform in a predictable, practiced manner to save valued property, take no risk to save what's lost, default to defensive when conditions deteriorate quickly.
Department Values and Skills: The ISO should recognize when crews are attempting to perform a skill for which they have never prepared.
Ch 8. 3.List the risk management concepts out-lined in NFPA standards.
Risk a life to save a known life.
Perform in a predictable, practiced manner to save valued property.
Take no risk to save what's lost.
Default to defensive when conditions deteriorate quickly.
Ch 8. 4.What is "valued property?"
Physical property whose loss will cause harm to the community.
Ch 8. 5.What is meant by situational awareness?
The degree of accuracy by which one's perception of the current environment mirrors reality; applied to the ISO, situational awareness is the ability to accurately read potential risks and recognize factors that influence the incident outcome.
Ch 8. 6.Describe three methods to read risk at an incident.
1. Collect Information: read the building, read the smoke, read firefighter effectiveness
2: Analyze: define principel hazard, time, ahead or behind the power curve, what's to be gained
3: Judge Risk: within risk taking values? are we reducing risks?
Ch 8. 7.What is vicarious learning?
Learning from the mistakes of others
Ch 9. 1.Define Hazardous energy.
Stored potential energy that will cause harm is suddenly released.
Ch 9. 2.List four ways to categorize the status of hazardous energy.
1. Stable - not likely to change
2. Stable - may change
3. Unstable - may require attention
4. Unstable - requires immediate attention
Ch 9. 3.List common electrical equipment and its associated hazards.
Powerlines/Wires: arc danger, voltage?, may jump recoil
Pole-Mounted Transformers: hard to extinguish, drip oil
Pad-Mounted Transformers: energize surface, arc
Ground level Vaults: confined space, o2, explosive
Subterranean Vaults: water, ventilate,
Generators: heat, fuel, automatic start up
Batteries: stored energy, chemical, gas buildup
Disconnects/switches/meters: exposed terminals
Ch 9. 4. What is ground gradient?
Is electrical energy that has established a path to ground through the earth and is energizing it. A downed power line may be energizing the earth in a concentric ring of up to 30 feet depending on the voltage source.
Ch 9. 5.Why are UPS battery rooms hazardous?
The direct current (DC) can energize pooled water, battery acid, and battery rack hardware.
Ch 9. 6.List the chemical properties of common utility gases.
Propane: C3H8, vapor density 1.5, bp = -44F, ignition temp 871F, UEL 9.5, LEL 2.4
Natural Gas: CH4, vapor density .55, bp = -259F, ignition temp = 999F, UEL 14.0, LEL 5.3
Ch 9. 7.List the hazards associated with utility water and storm sewer systems.
Uncontrolled water flow can cause initial and secondary structure collapse. The ISO should investigae water flows on scene.
Ch 9. 8.Give examples of mechanical hazardous energy
Sudden release of mechanical systems caused by heat, trauna, or overloading. Pulleys, cables, counterweights, springs. Freestanding truss structures.
Ch 9. 9.What are some of the hazardous energy sources in vehicles?
Stability/position, Fuel systems, electrical systems, power generation systems, suspension/ door systems, drive brake systems, restraint safety systems
Ch 9. 10.What are the four considerations that need to be evaluated when considering weather as a hazardous energy.
Potential for Change/Storms
Ch 9. 11.List some warning signs that extreme weather is approaching.
Watch the sky, Note 180 degree changes in wind direction, potential for flash flood, thunderstorms can produce rapid change, lightning flashes to define cloud formations that may be tornadic, distance between you and lightning, deep snow
Ch 9. 12.List several sources of miscellaneous hazardous energy.
Earthen materials, ice, flowing water, animal movement
Ch 10. 1.List the three factors that lead to overexertion.
Ergonomics, physicology, and rehab efforts
Ch 10. 2.What are the three ergonomic factors that can produce injury?
The physical Environment
The Relationship of the Worker
The Task
Ch 10. 3.What are the three As to help mitigate ergonomic hazards.
Ch 10. 4.List the three factors that impact human cell performance.
Thermal stress
Fuel Replacement
Ch 10. 5.Discuss two types of thermal stress
Heat Stress: clothing reduces bodies ability to evaporate heat
Cold Stress: body's core temperature cannot be maintained
Ch 10. 6.List three examples of passive cooling and two methods of active cooling.
Hypothermia: Can range from mild to severe. Mild cases are marked by shivering and loss of coordination. Lethargy and coma can onset quickly
Frostbite: A serious local injury meaning that a body part is frozen
Frostnip: A local injury. Most people do not realize they have frostnip, it is, however, a presursor to frostbite
Ch 10. 7.At minimum, how much water should working firefighters drink at an incident?
One quart per hour during periods of work
Ch 10. 8.What four elements need to be balanced to help human cell performance?
oxygen, water, glucose, insulin
Ch 10. 9.When feeding firefighters, food should be geared toward what balance?
low glycemic carbs
dietary fat
Ch 10. 10.How often should firefighters eat when incident activities require significant effort over a long period of time?
Feed now
Feed every two to three hours
Ch 10. 11.Define the for Rs of firefighter rehabilitation.
Ch 1. 1.What is the difference between an ISO and an HSO?
The HSO is responsible for health and safety administration, whereas the ISO is focused on scene-specific operations.
Ch. 1. 2.Explain the history of today's safety officer in the industrial world as well as in the fire service.
World war 2 brought about safety officers, 1970 congress passed OSHA-both employees and employers responsible for safety. In 1987 NFPA1500 to 1521. In 2004 homeland security made NIMS the national response plan.
Ch 1. 3.List and discuss the NFPA standards related to the ISO.
NFPA 1500- basic premis to develop and administer an active health and safety program
NFPA 1521-addressed authority, qualifications, and responsibilities of the safety officer
Ch 1. 4.What is the significance of the William Steiger Act?
In 1970 congress passed this act making way for OSHA-occupational safety and health administration. Responsibility of safety to both employee and employer
Ch 1. 5.How are the monetary costs associated with firefighter injuries and deaths paid for?
Workers compensation programs determine their premiums based on past injuries and deaths.
Ch 1. 6.Discuss Current firefighter injury and death trends and the need for incident safety officer response.
Average 105 firefighter fatalities a year, 1/3 on scene. In 2003: 50,000 injuries on the fire ground - 130 a day. Need ISO to bring those stats down
Ch 2. 1. List the three elements that affect work-place safety.
Ch 2. 2.Explain the difference between the formal and informal processes.
Formal processes: are SOP or SOG, departmental directives, temporary memorandums
Informal processes: obviously part of a department routine but are not written
Ch 2. 3.Describe four qualities of a well-written procedure.
Good SOP start with good writting
Clear outline
Tested technique
Easy interpretation
Applicability to many scenarios
Specific on critical or life endangering points
Ch 2. 4.List and describe the external influences that can affect safety equipment design and purchase.
OSHA regulations outline the equipment required for a given process to be accomplished (CFRs). WA state has Department of Labor and Industries.
NFPA Standards minimum accetable standard for equipment.
NIOSH, ANSI, and UL manufactures use to show their equipment meets design requirement.
Ch 2. 5.List and briefly describe the three factors that influence a person's ability to act safely.
1. Training: clear objectives, proficiency levels, applies real world, id hazards, define acceptable risks, list of options, act as trained. Must include right subjects.
2. Health- fit, stress, overexertion.
3. Attitude- slow and emotional.
Ch 2. 6.Define risk management.
The process of minimizing the chance, degree, or probability of damage, loss, or injury.
Ch 2. 7.List and explain the five steps of classic risk management.
1. Identify hazards - ie smoke
2. Evaluate hazards- for frequency and severity
3. Priortize hazards- how severe
4. Control hazards- avoid, transfer, adaptation
5. Monitor hazards- decline injuries
Ch 3. 1.What has typically motivated the establishment of guiding publications?
The majority of the publications were written as a result of a tragic event; therefore the ISO can use them as a basis to prevent similar tragedies from occuring.
Ch 3. 2.How are OSHA and NIOSH different?
OSHA is tasked with creating and enforcement of workplace law under the CFR's. NIOSH is the safety research and education which can recommend adjustment to CFR's. NIOSH has no enforcement responsibilities.
Ch 3. 3.What is the significance of the US Dept of Homeland Security to the fire service?
DHS regulates the National Response Plan and made NIMS with FEMA grant money tied to NIMS compliance.
Ch 3. 4.Define regulations, codes, laws, and guides.
1. Regulations: detail and procedures that have the force of law-OSHA, CFRs, EPA.
2. Codes: work of law established by a rule-making authority. Uniform fire code.
3. Standards: set of rules, procedures, professional measurements. NFPA.
4. Laws: enforceable rules of conduct that help protect society. Statutory law, case law.
5. Guides: publications offer procedures, direcions, or standard of care. NIOSH.
Ch 3. 5.List the 11 topical areas in the NFPA 1500 chapter on emergency operations.
1. Incident manager
2. Communications
3. Risk management during operations
4. Personnel accountability
5. Members operating at emergency incidents
6. Control zones
7. Roadway incidents
8. Rapid intervention
9. Rehabilitation
10. Scenes of violence
11. Post incident analysis
Ch 3. 6.What are the seven topical areas listed in NFPA1521 for functions of an ISO.
1. IMS
2. General incident safety
3. Fire suppression
4. Emergency medical services ops
5. Hazmat
6. Special operations
7. Postincident responsibilities
Ch 3. 7.What does IDLH stand for?
Immediately dangereous to life and health
Ch 3. 8.What responsibility does the ISO have in use of OSHA title 29 CFRs?
The ISO should have a site safety plans involving hazmat, confined space, trenches, hazardous energy.
Ch 4. 1.Explain the reasons that the ISO role should be preplanned.
The ISO is most effective when they arrive early at an incident (NIOSH recommendation):
1. Early help evaluate hazards during ultrarapid change.
2. First 15-20 min, lots of tasks are going on.
3. Risks are greater early in an incident.
Ch 4. 2.List four examples of when an automatic ISO response is beneficial.
1. Residential and commercial fires.
2. Wildland-Interface fires.
3. Special team incidents.
4. Target hazard incidents.
5. Aircraft incidents.
6. Weather extremes.
Ch 4. 3.List four examples of when automatic ISO delegation should take place.
1. Working incident
2. Growing span of control
3. Mutual aid incidents
4. Firefighter down/missing/trapped
Ch 4. 4.List three methods to get an ISO on-scene, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each.
1. Training officer: know dept and have equipment. Not available all the time, too many hats to wear.
2. Health and safety committee member: familiar with saftey issues, ISO training easy to accomplish. Extra costs for ot and equipment.
3. All eligible officers: the pool to draw from is large. You need to train a large group of officers. BC.
4. Dedicated ISO: trained and ready to respond. Need funding and support.
Ch 4. 5.Explain the authority given to the incident safety officer by NFPA standards.
NFPA 1521 gives the ISO the authority to stop, alter, or terminate activities if an imminent threat exists.
Ch 4. 6.List four tools that can help the ISO be effective on scene.
1. Radio: contact with IC, working crews.
2. High visibility: vest - safety officer
3. PPE: to walk scene
4. Clipboard file box: note taking.
An intervention to immediately stop, alter, or suspend an action or operation due to an imminent threat.
Firm Intervention
An activity, condition, or inaction that will most certainly lead to injury or death.
Imminent threat
A trained overhead IMS team with specific expertise and organized to deploy to incidents for management functions that exceed those available at the local level
Incident Management Team (IMT)
The center responsible for the ongoing development and refinement of various NIMS activities and programs
NIMS integration center (NIC)
The basic approach of an ISO to help firefighters work more safely.
Work safe triggers
Passive Triggers
Wearing a highly visible safety vest
Setting a good example, self-discipline etc.
Peer talk
Active Trigger
Soft intervention: let people know of dangerous situation on scene
Firm intervention: immediately stop operations to protect personnel
3 ISO Traps:
The Bunker Cop syndrome: spends too much time looking for missing, damaged, or inapproprate use of PPE...focusing on a
small part of the scene instead of big picture can be bad.

The CYA Mode: Citing rules and regulations in order to keep people out of danger or the ISO not held liable...instead of showing genuine concern for the personnel safety

The Worker: Pitching in to help crews do tasks and losing ability to stay mobile and observant to the scene
Who is ultimately responsible for scene safety?
Incident Commander
What are the two primary communications tools the ISO uses?
Face to Face
As a rule, how often should the ISO communicate with the IC at routine incidents?
Face to Face communication every 15 minutes
Proposed NIMS incident typing schem for incident management teams
Type 5; Local, agency, or jurisidiction specific
Type 4: Multiagency or jurisdictional(automatic/mutual aid)
Type 3: Regional
Type 2: State
Type 1: National
Define how the ISO organizational structure can expand for local-level incidents
The ISO can ask the IC to create an Assistant Safety Officer (ASO) position
Define how the ISO organizational structure can expand for large scale incidents
Instead of having 25 ASOs reporting to the safety officer, have one ASO take messages from the other ASOs and give the report the ISO.
A template that outlines a mental or physical process to be followed
Action Model
Failure to work within the framework of an incident action plant
A cyclic, four-arena model that allows the incident safety officer to mentally process the surveying and monitoring functions of typical incident activities and concerns
ISO Action Model
An exploratory examination of the incident scene environment and operations
Reconnaissance (recon)
What two methods help the ISO achieve a systematic approach in addressing ISO duties?
Action Models
List several advantages and disadvantages of using checklists
They provide a quick reminder of things that need to be done
When you are distracted, they help you get back on track
They lend themselves to uniformity (from person to person doing the same task).
Archiving is relatively simple
changing the checklist is relatively simple within the framework of a fire department
Most formats are easy to understand

There is no one right way to perform the functions of the ISO
checklist have a tendency to be either overly simple or amazingly complex
Once an item is checked off, the ISO may forget to revisit it
T cover a multitude of incident types, the ISO would have to carry a filing cabinet
Checklists imply an order for task completion, especially for the new or inexperienced ISO.
They may be subject to subpoena in legal matters.
What considerations should be considered in the design of a checklist?
Simple column format
Easy to read in low light
Room for notes and diagrams with space to accommodate grease pencils or water-resistant markers
Easy to differentiate from other similar checklists
A reminder area for required post-incident actions
What is one of the biggest traps of linear thinking?
Underestimating hazards
List the four components of the ISO Action Model
Describe the four steps that help and ISO become integrated at an incident
Confirm the ISO assignment
Collect information
Confirm communication links
Don appropriate identification and PPE
List the three ISO general duties that are applicable to all incident types
Monitor the incident
Address personnel safety systems
Define other needs
What four personal safety systems need to be evaluated by the ISO?
Personnel Accountability Systems
Need for control Zones
Radio Transmissions
Rehab Effectiveness
Establishes the public exclusion or clean zone
Cold zone
Areas that are exposed to trauma, debris, and/or thrust of a collapse; a more specific form of a no-entry zone
Collapse zone
the state of a building, are a, or condition being sound, whole or intact
Environmental integrity
The are a presenting the greatest risk to members and often classified as an IDLH atmosphere
The hot zone
Areas in or around the building where working firefighters are exposed or may become exposed to smoke and heat
IDLH zone
Areas where no person including firefighters, police, other responders, or the general public--should enter due to the serious or unpredictable nature of a hazard or condition
No Entry Zone
An organized reporting activity designed to account for all personnel working an incident.
PAR (personnel accountability report)
A classification given to the probability that a victim will survive the environment.
Rescue profile
Areas where firefighters, other responders, IMS staff, and apparatus are operating or staged
Support Zone
A limited access area for members directly aiding or supporting operations in the hot zone.
Warm Zone
What is the relevance of risk taking to incident benchmarks?
The ISO looks at the tactical priorities and determines if the risks being taken match the department's preestablished risk-taking criteria. "Risk a lot to save a lot"
What two factors can help in judging operational effectiveness at structure fires?
Adequate ventilation
Fire flow being met
An effective PAR should include the communication of what four elements?
# of people in the assignment
p.223...can't find fourth element
What is the essential difference between an IDLH and no-entry zone?
In a no-entry zone nobody including
List four times when an ISO should request ASO assistance at structure fires.
Large buildings with significant fire involvement
When a "plans section" is established at the fire
Fires in buildings with unusual or unique hazards
Anytime the ISO is requested to go into an IDLH environment
What is meant by a zero rescue profile?
There is obvious death in the building or chance for someone to survive.

Some indicators are turbulent smoke, black fire, and superdense smoke.
List the three dimensions that need to be defined during environmental reconnaissance.
Principle hazard
environmental integrity
effects of the surrounding elements
What is a magnet task?
A task everyone wants to be involved in ...injuries may occur due to congestion
Why should on-scene time be projected by the ISO?
Projecting the on-scene time reminds the ISO of future circumstances like the darkness of night or an impending storm
List the three resource considerations at structure fires.
what is the trap in labeling structure fires as residential or commercial?
It can set up the firefighter with mistaken expectations
List several unique hazards at strip mall structure fires.
High fire loads,
Common ceiling spaces
Long open-span trusses
Decorative facades
List four ISO functions unique to high-rise fires.
The overall action plan
Control of building systems (HVAC, elevators, etc.)
Occupant evacuation or shelter in place considerations
Communication and feedback between ISO and ASOs
List six ASO functions unique to high-rise fires
The physical demands of the firefighters
Internal traffic control
Compartment integrity
Establishing no-entry zones around lost windows
Developing and delivery of safety briefings
Outside issue
a wildland fire term used to describe the sudden advancement and increase in fire intensity due to wind, prewarmed fuels, or topographic features, such as a narrow canyon or a chimney.
A sudden, short-lived rise in fire intensity, attributed to wind, fuel, or topographical changes.
An acronym that stands for lookouts, communication methods, escape routes, and safety zones
List and describe five incident types that can be applied to wildland fires
Type-5: Local, agency, or jurisdiction specific
Type 4: Multiagency or jurisdiction
Type 3: Regional
Type 2: State
Type 1: National
List the three factors that influence fire spread
Define blow-up and flaring
Blow-up: A wildland fire term used to describe the sudden advancement and increase in fire intensity due to win, prewarmed fuels, or a topographic feature such as a narrow canyon or chimney.

Flaring: A sudden rise in fire intensity that is short-lived
List the leading stresses requiring rehab at the wildland fire
Exposure to heat, smoke and physical exertion
List four situations that may require the appointment of an ASO at wildland fires
Fires that impact a widespread geographical area
When a plans sections is established
Fires that are active for more than four hours
Anytime a base camp is estabished
List the three most common principal hazards at a wiildland fire
Rapid fire spread
Traffic issues
Physical exertion
Define LCES
Communication methods
Escape routes
Safety routes
Describe the types of behaviors that would indicate rehab efforts are effective
The routine should still be energetic with all positive indicators.
Discuss a troubling issue that may arise when ground firefighter interface with aircraft.
Firefighters may get "slimed" by aircraft dropping fire retardant.
A person who meets or exceeds the NFPA 472 requirements for Hazardous Materials Technician and is trained in the responsibilities of the ISO position as it relates to hazmat response.
Assistant safety officer--hazmat (ASO-HM)
An area where decontamination takes place and includes a safe refuge area for contaminated victims and responders who have left (or who have rapidly escaped) the IDLH zone
Contamination reduction zone
List the federal regulations that may have an impact on ISO functions
29 CFR 1910.95, Occupational Noise Exposure Limits
29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations & Emergency Response Solutions
29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection
29 CFR 1910.146, Permit-Required confined Spaces
29 CFR 1910.1030, Blood-Borne pathogens
29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazardous communication
To whom does the ASO-HM report at a hazmat tech-level incident?
Should report to the ISO
With whom does the ASO-HM likely work at a typical hazmat tech-level incident?
hazmat branch director, hazmat group supervisor or any technical specialist or industry rep that the plans section chief or IC has assigned to assist.
Persons not trained for their hazmat incident assignments create two risks. What are they?
liability and risk communication
What is a contamination reduction zone and where is it located?
an area where decontamination take place and includes a safe refuge area for contaminated victims and responders who have left (or who have rapidly escaped) the IDLH zone
List the three hazmat rehab components that require close evaluation.
Medical Monitoring
Sanitation Needs
Food Service
What are the ten federally required components of a hazmat response site safety plan?
--Safety, health, and hazard risk analysis, including entry objectives
--Site organization, including the training and qualifications of responders
--Identification of the exact type of PPE required for the tasks performed by responders
--Medical monitoring procedures
--Environmental monitoring and sampling procedures
--Site control measures, including exact control zone locations and gateway marking
--Decontamination procedures
--Predefined responder emergency plans (for fires, medical emergencies, and rapid intervention)
--Confined space entry procedures, including intervention and escape plans
--Spill containment procedures, including container-handling measures.
List five hazmat ancillary plans that may require ISO sign-off.
Incident Action Plan
Communications Plan
Exposure protection plan
Evacuation plan
Mass-victim decontamination plan
Responder decontamination plan
Traffic plan
Medical plan
Demobilization plan
Other site-specific plans
List five or more alarming hazards at a clandestine drug lab incident
Poor ventilation
Flammable/toxic atmospheres
Incompatible chemical
Chemical reactions in progress
Unidentified chemical and /or containers
Booby traps (improvised firearms, incendiary/explosive devices, and other such devices)
List and describe the three strategic goals for the ISO at a WMD/terrorist incident.
Gather RECON and threat information
Analyze options
Develop a safety action plan
A person who meets or exceeds the NFPA 1670 requirements for Rescue Technician and is trained in the responsibilities of the ISO position as it relates to the specific rescue incident
Assistant safety officer--rescue tech (ASO-RT)
Collapse in which victims are easily accessible and trapped by surface debris. Loads are minimal and easily moved by rescuers. The threat of secondary collapse is minimal.
Basic/surface collapse
A collapse in which stressed concrete, reinforced concrete, and steel girders are impending access. Included are collapses that require the response of USAR teams and specialized equipment and collapses that threaten other structures or that involve the possibility of significant secondary collapse.
Heavy collapse
A collapse in which usually a light-frame (wood) partition collapses and common fire department equipment from engine and truck companies) can access or shore areas for search and extrication.
Light Collapse
A collapse of ordinary construction that involves masonry materials and heavy wood. Lightweight construction with unstable large open spans should also be classified as moderate.
Moderate Collapse
An organized system in which a working team is replaced with another working team that is already dialed in and ready to replace them.
On-deck system
Some object (like a large fire apparatus) that can absorb the impact of a secondary crash to protect rescuers.
Traffic barrier
Efforts to slow down approaching traffic: traffic cones, spotter or flaggers, arrow sticks, flashing lights, and warning signs
Traffic-calming strategies
List several regulations that outline response requirements for tech-rescue incidents
29 CFR 1910.95, Occupational Noise Exposure Limits
29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations & Emergency Response Solutions
29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory protection
29 CFR 1910.146, Permit-Required Confined Spaces
29 CFR 1910.147, The Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tag-Out)
29 CFR 1910.1030, Blood-Borne Pathogens
29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication
29 CFR 1910.1926, Excavations, Trenching Operations
when should an ASO-RT be assigned at a tech-rescue incident?
When the ISO does not have technician-level training and/or certification
For whom does the ASO-RT work at a tech-rescue incident?
List the two rehab issues that require special attention at tech-rescue incidents
Perceived comfort
Energy replacement
What is the benefit of using an on-deck system for crew rotation?
An on-deck system is an organized system in which a working team is replaced with another working team that is already dialed in and ready to replace them.
A collapsed building make of cinder block walls and small timber beams should be classified as which type of collapse?
Moderate collapse
List five hazards associated with industrial entrapments
Heavy machinery
complicated access
Unsecured hazardous energy
Interfaced and /or automated systems

Security system impediment
Megasized equipment
Pinch hazards
Equipment congestion
Exotic materials
Material stockpiling
What is LCES and how can it be used at a cave-in?
Lookouts: ASOs, soil engineers, and briefed support personnel can serve as lookouts

Communications: Visual and voice communications are often a viable communications tool.

Escape Routes: Escape ladders and boarded footpaths should be used to create reliable escape routes.

Safe zones: Developing suitable safe zones can prove challenging. A separate shore or refuse area may need to be erected prior to victim extrication efforts
List six hazards associated with water rescues
Swift/hidden currents
Low-head dams
Submerged entrapment hazards
Floating debris
Reduced visibility (Murky water and water/salt spray)
Fragile and/or shifting ice
Marine life
Frightened animals
Distance to solid ground
Crushing wave forces and undertows or riptides
List five hazards associated with high angle rescues
Limited access
Dizzying heights
Limited escape routes
Slip/fall hazards
Limited anchor options
Heights beyond equipment capabilities
Use of helicopters
Equipment failure
Falling debris
Dropped equipment
Name five circumstances in which a duty ISO should implement a discretionary response to motor vehicle accidents.
Multiple vehicles involved
Long response time
Involvement of hazardous energy
Extreme weather
Involvement of buses, hazmat, high-angle, and the like
What is the difference between traffic barriers and traffic-calming strategies
A traffic barrier is an object meant to stop and absorb the impact from an outside force

Traffic calming is meant to slow traffic.
Diagram a strategic approach to protect rescuers at roadway incidents
Establish a system of traffic barriers, traffic-calming strategies, work areas, and escape zones.
A subway derailment below ground is similar to what kind of incident?
Confined space
Industrial entrapment
Structural collapse
What do jet fuel, burnt plastics, and composite metals have in common at an aircraft incident?
respiratory irritants/toxic
A statistics-based concept that, for every one serious injury, there are thirty minor injuries, and over six hundred near misses or close calls.
Accident triangle
A legal phrase for the effort to act in a reasonable or prudent way, given circumstances, with due regard to laws
Due diligence
Formal and/or informal reflective discussions that fire departments use to summarize the successes and improvement areas discovered from an incident
Post-incident analysis
What is meant by post-incident thought patterns?
Reflective or introspective mental wanderings that firefighters experience just after incident control
Compare and contrast the role of the ISO in informal and formal postincident analysis
The ISO and IC may use an informal "how it went" PIA for routine incident where no significant operational issues were raised.

The ISO and IC should prepare a formal PIA for significant incidents where operational issues were raised.
What are the six items that the ISO should comment on during a PIA?
General Risk Profile of the incident
Effectiveness of crew tracking and accountability
Rehabilitation effectiveness
Personal Protective Equipment use
Close Calls
Injury status
Explain the role of the ISO in accident investigation according to NFPA standards.
The incident safety officer shall initiate the accident investigation procedures as required by the fire department

In the event of a serious injury, fatality, or other potentially harmful occurrence, the incident safety officer shall request assistance from the health and safety officer.
What are the five parts of the accident chain?
Human factors
give examples of human factors in the accident chain.
The components of human (or social) behavior--training, the use of/or failure to use recognized practices and procedures, fatigue, fitness, and attitudes
What are the three steps of accident investigation?
Information Collection
Analysis and Reconstruction
What are the six pieces of information that should be collected for an accident investigation?
Incident data
Witness statements
Scene sketches/diagrams
Physical evidence
How should a complete disregard for safety be handled during the recommendation phase of an accident investigation?
The ISO should meet with a supervisor or chief officer and allow the department to handle the issue administratively.