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The measure of the clarity of the image, or the minimum distance of two distinguishable points
stained or labeled
Various techniques enhance contrast and enable cell components to be _________ or _________.
Scanning electron microscopes (SEM)
Focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen, providing images that look 3-D
Prokaryotic or eukaryotic
The basic structural and functional unit of every organism is one of two types of cells:
Bacteria and Archaea
Only organisms of the domains ________ and ________ consist of prokaryotic cells
Plasma membrane, semifluid called cytosol, chromosomes, and ribosomes
What are the basic features of all cells?
Are characterized by having no nucleus, DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid, no membrane-bound organelles, and Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane
Are characterized by DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope, membrane-bound organelles, and cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus
A selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell
The general structure of a biological membrane is a ________ _________ of phospholipids.
The nuclear membrane is a _______ ________; each membrane consists of a lipid bilayer
cytosol (free ribosomes) and on the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or the nuclear envelope (bound ribosomes)
Ribosomes carry out protein synthesis in two locations
nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, plasma membrane
Components of the endomembrane system
Smooth ER (lacks ribosomes) and rough ER (surface is studded with ribosomes)
What are the two distinct regions of ER?
Synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbohydrates, detoxifies drugs and poisons, and stores calcium ions
has bound ribosomes (which secrete glycoproteins), distributes transport vesicles, and is a membrane factory for the cell
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