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Campbell Biology 9e


All organisms are made of what


The cell is the ________ collection of matter that can be alive.

cellular function

The cell function is correlated to what?

descent from earlier cells

How are all cells related?


Though usually too small to be seen by the unaided eye, cells can be complex __________.

Light Microscope (LM)

Visible light is passed through a specimen and then through glass lenses

refract (bend)

What do the lenses on a LM do to the light in order to magnify the image?

Magnification, resolution, contrast

What are three important parameters of microscopy?


The ratio of an object's image size to its real size


The measure of the clarity of the image, or the minimum distance of two distinguishable points


Visible differences in parts of the sample

1,000 times

LMs can magnify effectively to about how much of the size of the actual specimen

stained or labeled

Various techniques enhance contrast and enable cell components to be _________ or _________.


Most subcellular structures, including what, are too small to be resolved by an LM

Subcellular structures

Two types of electron microscopes are used to study what?

Scanning electron microscopes (SEM)

Focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen, providing images that look 3-D

Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs)

Focus a beam of electrons through a specimen

internal structures

TEMs are mainly used to study what part of cells?

Prokaryotic or eukaryotic

The basic structural and functional unit of every organism is one of two types of cells:

Bacteria and Archaea

Only organisms of the domains ________ and ________ consist of prokaryotic cells

Protists, fungi, animals, and plants

Which organisms consist of eukaryotic cells

Plasma membrane, semifluid called cytosol, chromosomes, and ribosomes

What are the basic features of all cells?

Prokaryotic cells

Are characterized by having no nucleus, DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid, no membrane-bound organelles, and Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane

Eukaryotic cells

Are characterized by DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope, membrane-bound organelles, and cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus

much larger

Eukaryotic cells are generally ______ ________ than prokaryotic cells

Plasma membrane

A selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell

double bilayer

The general structure of a biological membrane is a ________ _________ of phospholipids.


What type of requirements set upper limits on the size of cells?

surface area to volume

What ratio is critical to a cell?

internal membranes

A eukaryotic cell has _______ ________ that partition the cell into organelles

Plant and animal

What organisms have most of the same organelles.

Nucleus; DNA

The ________ contains most of the ______ in a eukaryotic cell


What uses the information from the DNA to make proteins?


Contains most of the cell's genes and is usually the most conspicuous organelle

Nuclear envelope

Encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm

double membrane

The nuclear membrane is a _______ ________; each membrane consists of a lipid bilayer


What regulates the entry and exit of molecules from the nucleus?

Nuclear lamina

What is the shape of the nucleus maintained by and is composed of proteins?


In the nucleus, DNA is organized of a single DNA molecule called what?

a single DNA molecule

Each chromosome is composed of what and is associated with proteins?


The DNA and proteins of chromosomes are together

Discrete Chromosomes

Chromatin condenses to form what as a cell prepares to divide?


Located within the nucleus and is the site of ribosomal RNA(rRNA) synthesis


Particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein

cytosol (free ribosomes) and on the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or the nuclear envelope (bound ribosomes)

Ribosomes carry out protein synthesis in two locations


Rough ER has what?

nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, plasma membrane

Components of the endomembrane system


Endomembrane system components are either continuous or connected via transfer by what?

Biosynthetic Factory

The Endoplasmic Reticulum

Endoplasmic reticulum

Accounts for more than half of the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells


The ER membrane is what with the nuclear envelope?

Smooth ER (lacks ribosomes) and rough ER (surface is studded with ribosomes)

What are the two distinct regions of ER?

Smooth ER

Synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbohydrates, detoxifies drugs and poisons, and stores calcium ions


Proteins covalently bonded to carbohydrates

Rough ER

has bound ribosomes (which secrete glycoproteins), distributes transport vesicles, and is a membrane factory for the cell

Transport vesicles

Proteins surrounded by membranes


A membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules

Lysosomal enzymes

Can hydrolyze proteins, fats, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids

acidic environments

Lysosomal enzymes work best in what environment inside the lysosome?


Some types of cells can engulf another cell by what, forming a food vacuole?

food vacuole

A lysosome fuses with what and digest the molecules?


Lysosomes also use enzymes to recycle the cell's own organelles and macromolecules, a process called what?

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