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a complex, highly organized society with
trade, government, arts, science, and often a written language

joint-stock company

a business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose then share the profits

Christopher Columbus

Italian sea captain in service with Spain who arrived in the Americas in 1492


first permanent English settlement, located near the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia.


separatists who sailed on the Mayflower

subsistence farming

farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or a village

William Penn

an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682; he launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.

proprietary colony

owned and ruled by one person who could govern it any way he wanted

indentured servants

colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years

triangular trade

the exchange of goods among the colonies, England, Africa and the Caribbean sugar planters

slave codes

laws passed by southern states that forbade slaves from gathering in groups, owning property, receiving an education, and moving freely


the reason for the founding of English colonies

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