Semester 1 Final Exam Review Units 1-3
Terms in this set (38)
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
English Puritans who founded Plymouth Colony in 1620 seeking religious freedom
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Governor of Massachusetts Bay. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill".
"city on a hill"
Biblical ideal, invoked by John Winthrop, of a society governed by civil liberty that would be an example for others to imitate around the world
believed a nation could gain wealth by selling more goods to other countries than is bought from them
Religious movement characterized by emotional preaching; it encouraged religious enthusiasm. United the Thirteen Colonies.
Revenue stamps were attached to printed matter and legal documents, newspapers, and insurance papers etc. For the colonists the main issue was "no taxation without representation." Public protests increased until it was repealed in 1766.
British deeply in debt from the French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. Colonists claimed this was "taxation without representation"
Natural Rights of Life, Liberty, Property. Influenced the Declaration of Independence's "life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness"
Famous quote: "Give me liberty, or give me death!" showed a willingness to die for freedom prior to Revolutionary War
opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights.
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Articles of Confederation
Nation's first constitution. The document was flawed because states held much greater power than the central government
Checks and balances
A system that maintains the separation of powers in which each branch of government is able to check, or restrain, the power of the others
Proclamation of Neutrality
(1793) US would remain friendly and impartial toward both Britain and France to safeguard its newly won independence
American foreign policy that warned Europeans to stay out of the Western Hemispere
1800s belief that Americans had the right to expand westward across the continent.
Five Civilized tribes
The Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes They were considered civilized by whites because they adopted aspects of European cultures.
Indian Removal Act
1830 law calling for the forced movement of Native Americans to west of the Mississippi River
Second Great Awakening
A second religious revival movement. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Seneca Falls convention
(1848) the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written
best-selling novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe that strengthened the abolition movement
Harriet Tubman, a system that provided escape routes for slaves fleeing the South to freedom in the North
American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published his biography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
Loyalty to one's own state or region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
Cleaned cotton quickly- strengthened the institution of slavery
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place for complete religious and political freedom.
the journey that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean
Motivated first to find new trade routes to Asia, then to acquire gold and wealth
Motivated to live and settle new colonies in North America. The desire for land came into conflict with Native Americans already living on the land.
Settled by people with a variety of religious backgrounds who came to the colonies for religious freedom and economic opportunity.
Working for a colonial employer for a specified time in exchange for passage to America. Unlike slavery, this was not permanent.
1776 pamphlet by Thomas Paine that persuaded ordinary people to support the Revolutionary cause.
"No taxation without representation"
reflected the colonists' belief that they had not agreed to be governed or had colonists in the government making laws.
A system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by other people. In the North, slaves were often household servants, while in the South they worked as farm laborers
Declaration of Independence
a 1776 document stating that the 13 English colonies were a free and independent nation
Mexican American War
The 1846-1848 war that demonstrated America's desire to expand and fulfill Manifest Destiny.