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During a visit to a plastic sheeting plant, it was observed that a -long section of a nominal outer-diameter) steam pipe extended from one end of the plant to the other with no insulation on it. The temperature measurements at several locations revealed that the average temperature of the exposed surfaces of the steam pipe was , while the temperature of the surrounding air was . The outer surface of the pipe appeared to be oxidized, and its emissivity can be taken to be . Taking the temperature of the surrounding surfaces to be also, Find the rate of heat loss from the steam pipe. Steam is generated in a gas furnace that has an efficiency of percent, and the plant pays per therm ( ) of natural gas. The plant operates a day days a year, and thus a year. Find the annual cost of the heat losses from the steam pipe for this facility.
The electric field is defined in Eq. = in terms of , a small positive charge. If instead the definition were in terms of a small negative charge of the same magnitude, then compared to the original field, the newly defined electric field (A) would point in the same direction, and have the same magnitude. (B) would point in the opposite direction, but have the same magnitude. (C) would point in the same direction, but have a different magnitude. (D) would point in the opposite direction, and have a different magnitude.