Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Central Visual System - Neuro 3000
Terms in this set (100)
Information is separated into ___________ pathways for analyzing different features of input; it is estimated that about ______ of the brain is used to analyze visual information.
The retinofugal projection consists of the ____________, _____________, and _________.
optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract
The optic nerves form the ____________, which is anterior to the pituitary.
Axons from the ________ retina cross over at the optic chiasm, while axons from the _________ retina do not. This is known as a _______ decussation.
nasal, temporal, partial
Optic tracts run under the ____ along the lateral ____________________.
Once the axons from the optic nerve are past the ____________, they are known as the optic tract.
Our vision can be divided into two ____________, where the left is analyzed by the right hemisphere and the right is analyzed by the left hemisphere.
Most of the neurons in the optic tract connect to the _______ which is located in the dorsal ___________.
Once neurons from the optic tract are past the LGN, they are known as ___________, which project to the ___________ and allow for the conscious perception of visual information.
optic radiation, cortex
True or False: most of the visual field is seen with both eyes.
Visual information from the right hemifield falls heavily on the ___________ part of the left eye and the ______ part of the right eye.
Visual information from the left hemifield falls heavily on the ___________ part of the left eye and the ______ part of the right eye.
The ______ optic tract carries information from the right hemifield, while the _____ optic tract carries information from the left hemifield.
A transection of the _____ optic nerve will result in partial vision loss in your _____ hemifield
A transection of the _____ optic tract will result in total vision loss in your _____ hemifield
A transection of the optic chiasm will result in the loss of ___________ vision, as it would only affect the _______ axons that cross over.
Some axons from the optic tract connect to the ___________, where the information is used to maintain circadian rhythms. Some also connect to the __________, which controls pupil size, lens shape, and some eye movement.
10% of ganglion cells connect to an area in the _________ which is called the ___________ ___________. This is the major pathway for nonmammalian vertebrates (the _____________ projection).
tectum, superior colliculus, retinotectal
True or False: neurons within the LGN receives input from both eyes while the superior colliculus receives input from only one eye or the other.
False, the LGN receives input from one eye or the other while the superior colliculus receives input from both.
In mammals, the role of the retinotectal projection is to....
orient eyes in response to new stimuli
The pupillary reflex and lens shape are altered by ____________ ganglion which are controlled by the ____________.
Most visual information is carried to the ____ of the thalamus. This structure is separated into ____ distinct layers.
Layers 1 and 2 of the LGN are larger and are called ___________. These layers receive input from ___-type RGC.
Layers 3-6 of the LGN are smaller and are called ___________. These layers receive input from ___-type RGC.
NonM-nonP RGC send input to _______________ layers of the LGN, which are tiny layers in between the main 6.
True or False: eye inputs in the LGN, (left eye, right eye) are kept separate.
The right LGN receives input from the ________ visual field; the left LGN receives input from the _______ visual field.
In the right LGN, right eye axons go to layers ___, ___, and ___ while left eye axons go to layers ___, ___, and ____.
2, 3, 5, 1, 4, 6
True or False: right and left axons within the left LGN are sorted in the same manner as in the right LGN.
False, it is reversed.
True or False: The receptive fields and response properties of the LGN neurons are different from those of the retinal ganglion cells that innervate them.
False, they are the same.
Layers 1-2 of the LGN have a _______ center-surround, and the center response is ________ firing.
Layers 3-6 of the LGN have a _______ center-surround, and the center response is ________ firing.
True or False: ON-center and OFF-center cells are mixed within all layers of the LGN.
Koniocellular cells have center-surround fields with either ______/_______ or ________ opponency.
True or False: most of the input to the LGN comes from the retina.
False, most comes from the primary visual cortex, V1 and some from the brainstem.
The _______ present in the primary visual cortex suggest a segregation of input and analysis.
Layer ___ of the primary visual cortex has very few neurons, is also called the ____________ layer.
______ ____________ cells are found in layer IVC of the primary visual cortex, which have axons that make local connections (Golgi type II).
______________ cells are found in most other layers of the primary visual cortex, which make projections to other regions (Golgi type I).
___________ neurons are present in all layers of the primary visual cortex, which only make local connections.
True or False: larger pyramidal cells are found in layers 2-3 of the primary visual cortex, while smaller ones are found in layers 5-6.
False, swap larger and smaller.
There are (few/many) pyramidal neurons found in layer IV of the primary visual cortex.
In the primary visual cortex, ___________ cells in layer IV project to ____________ cells in layers II and III.
The retinotopic map is produced through __________ retinal cells communicating with __________ LGN and primary visual cortex cells.
The central visual field is overexpressed in the retinotopic map due to more ganglion cells concentrated in the ________.
Magnocellular LGN neurons (layers 1 and 2) project to layer ________ of the primary visual cortex.
Parvocellular LGN neurons (layers 3-6) project to layer ________ of the primary visual cortex.
Koniocellular LGN neurons project to layers _____ and _____ of the primary visual cortex.
True or False: Crossing over of visual information also occurs on the pathway from the LGN to the primary visual cortex.
False, direct pathway via the optic radiation.
We know that visual information from each eye is still separate in the primary visual cortex due to ______ __________ columns, which respond to the left and right eye in an alternating fashion.
Monocular deprivation is damaging to the brain because _________ drives _________.
Outside of layer ____ of the primary visual cortex, horizontal connections are made which facilitates communication and integration of visual information.
Layer IVC neurons project radially to layers ____ and ____ of the primary visual cortex where left and right eye inputs mix.
Layer ____ (magnocellular) neurons project to layer IVB of the primary visual cortex, while layer ____ (parvocellular ) neurons project to layer III.
Visual information leaves the primary visual cortex to other areas via ______________ cell projections.
______ are neurons within the primary visual cortex that express higher levels of cytochrome oxidase and are aligned with layer IV ocular dominance columns.
Blobs run through layers ___, ____, ____ and ____ but not in layer ____.
II, III, V, VI, IV
True or False: Blobs receive input from both parvocellular and magnocellular IVC neurons.
Layer III blobs receive input from _____________ LGN neurons directly.
True or False: most fields within the retina, LGN, and layer IVC of the primary visual cortex respond best to a spot of light larger than the receptive field center.
False, matched in size
True or False: receptive fields in layer IVC are similar to magnocellular and parvocellular LGN inputs (small center-surround receptive fields).
layer ____ neurons are insensitive to wavelength, while layer ____ possess center-surround and color opponency.
More complex visual stimuli is processed past layer _____, but small spots of light still elicit a response in most cortical neurons.
Radial columns of cells through several layers of the primary visual cortex have the same preferred ______________.
Most neurons outside of layer ____ of the primary visual cortex are orientation-selective.
____________ cells have shifted orientation selectivity.
Orientation-selective neurons outside of layer IVC are specialized for the analysis of _______.
_________-selective neurons are a subset of orientation-selective neurons that receive input from magnocellular cells of the LGN, meaning they would be responsible for the analysis of object _______.
The _______ cell model involves V1 neurons receiving a converging input from 3 or more LGN cells with receptive fields aligned along an axis. The alignment must be along the ___ centers of multiple cells, which accounts for a beam of light activating one cortical neuron in one location, but not when in a different location/angle.
Simple cells are (sensitive/insensitive) to stimulus orientation and are (binocular/monocular).
True or False: simple cells have a few responses to color and motion.
False, a wide range of responses
Simple cells are present mostly in layers _____ and _____.
The __________ cell model does not possess distinct ON or OFF regions; receives input from multiple simple cells. They are sensitive to stimulus orientation, binocular, and possess a range of responses to color and motion.
Complex cells respond to activity in (any one/only all/only one) of their converging input lines (simple cells).
Complex cells are found mostly in layers ___, ___, ___, and ___.
II, III, V, VI
The three channels that process visual information consist of the _____________, _________________________, and the ________.
magnocellular, parvocellular-interblob, blob
True or False: the three channels that process visual information are distinct and have unique receptive field properties.
False, they mix somewhat
The ____________ channel starts with M-type RGC, goes to layers 1-2 of the LGN, goes to layer IVCα and then to layer IVB of the primary visual cortex (transient response, large receptive fields.)
Layer IVB of the primary visual cortex contains __________ receptive fields, simple and complex cells, of which many are __________ and ___________-selective. This means the magnocellular channel is primarily for the analysis of object _______ and guidance of ________ actions.
binocular, direction, orientation, motion, motor
The ________________ channel starts with P-type RGC, goes to layers 3-6 of the LGN, goes to layer IVCβ and then to layers II and III interblob regions of the primary visual cortex. This pathway is primarily for the analysis of object ________.
The _____ channel starts with nonM-nonP RGC, goes to koniocellular regions of the LGN, goes to blobs in layers II and III. Neurons here have circular receptive fields with a complex mix of color opponency and center-surround organization, meaning that this pathway is primarily for the analysis of object _______.
The ________ ________ model can explain how a 2x2 mm section of the primary visual cortex can analyze a single point of light in your visual field.
A cortical module consists of 2 sets of __________ ____________ ___________, 16 _______, ___________, and all 180 degrees of orientation.
ocular dominance columns, blobs, interblobs
Beyond the primary visual cortex, there are _____ _______ extrastriate areas and two major streams of processing: __________ and ___________.
two dozen, dorsal, ventral
The _________ stream is responsible for visual-related action and analysis of motion, an extension of the primary visual cortex's magnocellular pathway.
The ________ stream is responsible for perception and object recognition, an extension of the primary visual cortex's parvo-interblob and blob pathways.
True or False: Ventral and dorsal streams are dominated by one pathway, but receive some input from all pathways.
Dorsal stream: ____ --> ____ --> ____ --> ____ --> ____ --> other dorsal areas. Other direct connections from V1, V2, V3 --> MT exist.
V1, V2, V3, MT, MST
Ventral stream: ____ --> ____ --> ____ --> ____ --> ____ --> other ventral areas. V2 can also communicate directly with V4.
V1, V2, V3, V4, IT
True or False: V1, V2, V3, and V4 maintain a retinotopic map, but face and object recognition areas do not.
True or False: Receptive fields get smaller as we move from the primary visual cortex.
False, they get larger
In the dorsal stream, the _____ region, also called V5, receives info from V2, V3, and directly innervated by IVB.
MT (middle temporal)
____ cells that innervate the MT region of the dorsal stream have large receptive fields, transient light response, and direction selectivity.
All cells within the ____ region are specialized for detecting motion, and possess __________ __ ________ columns similar to the orientation columns as seen in the primary visual cortex.
MT, direction of motion
Cells within the ____ region of the dorsal stream are responsible for detecting linear motion, radial motion, and circular motion. This information is used for navigation, eye movements, and motion perception.
Strokes that occur in the ___ region can cause an inability to perceive motion.
The ___ region of the ventral stream receives input from parvo-interblob and blob pathways, and contains cells that detect orientation, color, and shape.
The ___ region of the ventral stream contains cells responsible for detecting color, abstract shapes, and some for the recognition of faces.
True or False: Cells that process visual information are sensitive to a single property.
False, more than one property.
________ tuning and _________ processing is a motif in the nervous system.
Other sets by this creator
Neuro 3050 Exam 1
Neuro 3010 Exam 4
Neuro 3010 Exam 3
Neuro 3010 Exam 2
Recommended textbook solutions
Advanced Engineering Mathematics
Fundamentals of Engineering Economic Analysis
David Besanko, Mark Shanley, Scott Schaefer
Chemistry for Engineering Students
Lawrence S. Brown, Thomas A. Holme
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Other Quizlet sets
Pharmacy 125- Chapter 10- Test
AZ 900 Practice Exam 3 Review
Quiz 19 CC