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Terms in this set (17)

The Freedom House is the most maximalist measure and there are two components: Political rights (about 12 indicators) and civil liberties (about 15 indicators). Each indicator is rated from 1 (most democratic) to 7. Each component is given the value of the average of its indicators. The overall democracy score is the average of the two components.
Political Rights: 1. Executive elected. 2. Legislature is elected. 3. Electoral laws are fair. 4. More than 1 party. 5. Significant opposition vote. 6. Political choices are free. 7. Equal rights for minorities. 8. Elected officials make decisions. 9. No widespread corruption. 10. Accountability between elections. 11. If monarch, he/she consults population. 12. No attempt to change the country's ethnic composition.
Civil Liberties: 1. Freedom of media. 2. Religious freedom. 3. Academic freedom. 4. Free private discussion. 5. Freedom of assembly. 6. NGO freedom. 7. Trade unions are legal. 8. Independent judiciary. 9. Rule of law. 10. No war or insurgency. 11. Equal treatment for all. 12. Freedom of travel/residence/employment/education. 13. Property rights. 14. Gender equality and freedom to choose marriage partner / family size. 15. Equality of opportunity and absence of economic exploitation.
The main limitations of the Freedom House is that it's: 1. Too inclusive, 2. Weak theoretical foundation (subjective). 3. Aggregation rule (weight put on each indicator). 4. Subjective. 5. Lacks transparency. 6. Indicators change over time.
Freedom House implies "problems in all areas of conceptualization, measurement, and aggregation." (Munck and Verkeilen 2002, p.28).
Sokoloff and Engerman argue that differences in development were created by differences in factor endowments. This created differences in initial inequality levels. Different factor endowments required different forms of labor. Large plantations were suitable to the use of slaves, however not in North America where there was grain agriculture. Endowment factors also created very high inequality societies; Latin America remains the most unequal region. In Latin America, institutions were created to protect the privileges of the elite and prevent the masses from integrating the economy after the abolition of slavery. This caused exclusive and extractive institutions. Factor endowments where minerals instead of large plantations used natives as laborers and Spain even gave up large pieces of land and mines to few Europeans. You could only vote if you owned land. North America wasn't a large native population and wasn't suitable to large-scale plantations, but the production of grain agriculture favored small farms and small owners. Factor endowments also favored establishment of less repressive regimes and political institutions tended to reproduce income distribution. There were also no restrictions on buying land in North America. The different in initial inequality arose from differences in factor endowments for example, the ratio of land suitable for wheat production to land suitable for sugar production. Inequality remains high because of political institutions and the negative relationship between inequality and social mobility.