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Samuel de Champlain

The Father of New France, who established a crucial alliance with the Huron Indians

Robert de la Salle

French Empire builder who explored the Mississippi Basin and named it after his monarch

Treaty of Utrecht

Agreement that ended the War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Anne's War) and awarded Acadia to Britain

War of Austrian Succession

Conflict that started with the War of Jenkin's Ear and ended with the return of Louisbourg to France

Fort Duquesne

Strategic French stronghold; later renamed after a great British statesman

George Washington

Militia commander whose frontier skirmish in Pennsylvania touched off a world war

Benjamin Franklin

Advocate of colonial unity at the unsuccessful Albany Congress

General Braddock

Blundering British officer whose defeat gave the advantage to the French and Indians in the early stages of their war

William Pitt

Spendid British orator and organizer of the winning strategy against the French in North American

Plains of Abraham

Site of death of Generals Wolfe and Montcalm, where France's New World empire also perished

Seven Years' War

Conflict in Europe that pitted France against Britatin's ally Frederick the Great of Prussia


Indian leader whose frontier uprising caused the British to attempt to limit colonial expansion

Proclaimation of 1763

British document that aroused colonial anger but failed to stop frontier expansion

New Orleans

Strategic French outpost at the mouth of the Mississippi

Acadians (Cajuns)

French colonists in Nova Scotia brutally uprooted by victorious British and shipped to Louisianna

The French fur trade

Decimated beaver populations while spreading the French empire

The four "world wars" between 1688 and 1763

Were echoed by four small wars between French and British subjects in North America

Competition for land and furs in the Ohio Valley

Led to Washington's expedition and battle with the French at Fort Necessity

The summoning of the Albany Congress by the British

Represented the first major attempt at intercolonial unity

William Pitt's assumption of control of British government and strategy

Ended a string of defeats and turned the French and Indian War in Britain's favor

Wolfe's victory over Montcalm at Quebec

Resulted in decisive French defeat and British domination of North America

The colonial militia's military success in the Fench and Indian War

Increased American military confidence and resentment of British redcoats

Colonial American smuggling and trading with French enemy

Increased British government's disdain for colonial Americans and raised doubts

British inssurance of the Proclamation of 1763

Led to Washington's expedition and battle with the French at Fort Necessity

Braddock's defeat at Fort Duquesne

Prompted widespread Indian assaults on the weakly defended colonial frontier

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