96 terms

AP Biology: Chapters 9-10

I can't exactly put diagrams on here, so be shure to study them!
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reduction
gain an electron
oxidation
lose an electron
glucose (C6H12O6)
Cellular Respiration: What is being oxidized? (Actual name.)
CO2 (carbon dioxide)
Cellular Respiration: What is glucose being oxidized to? (Put the chemical formula.)
oxygen (O2)
Cellular Respiration: What is being reduced? (Actual name)
water (H2O)
Cellular Respiration: What is oxygen being reduced to?
NADH
Cellular Respiration: What enzyme takes the electron from glucose to oxygen?
NAD
Cellular Respiration: "Electron shuttle" with two forms, coenzyme
NAD+
oxidized form of NAD
NAD+
electron empty form of NAD
NADH
reduced form of NAD
NADH
electron full form of NAD
NADH
Form of NAD that contains two high energy electrons
glycolysis
What is the first step of cellular respiration?
sugar break
What does glycolysis mean? (No quotations.)
cytosol
Where does glycolysis occur?
Kreb's Cycle (citric acid cycle)
What is the second step of cellular respiration?
2
How many ATP does glycolysis produce?
2
How many ATP does the Kreb's Cycle produce?
Oxidative Phosphorylation
What is the third step of cellular respiration?
32
How many ATP does oxidative phosphorylation produce?
36
How many NET ATP does cellular respiration produce?
2
How many ATP does glycolysis use?
glyceraldehyde
Cellular Respiration: What 3C compound does glucose break down into? (singular)
pyruvate
Cellular Respiration: What 3C compound does glyceraldehyde become?
pyruvate
Cellular Respiration: What is the end product of glycolysis?
substrate level
What kind of phosphorylation does glycolysis go through?
CO2
What 1C compound must leave in Kreb's "prestep"? (Chemical formula)
acetic acid
What does pyruvate become after CO2 leaves?
NADH
What comes after picking up an electron from acetic acid?
coenzyme A
"escort enzyme"
Acetyl CoA
end product of Kreb's "prestep"
4
How many carbons are in oxaloacetate?
citric acid
Acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate combine to make...?
citric acid cycle
another name for Kreb's Cycle
CO2
What is released from citric acid to make a 5C compound? (chemical formula)
1
How much ATP is gained from one turn of the Kreb's Cycle?
FADH
What is also know as an "alternate electron shuttle"?
oxidative phosphorylation
Kreb's cycle undergoes what kind of phosphorylation?
3
How many NADH occurs in one turn of the Kreb's Cycle (excluding the PreStep)?
mitochondria
Where does cellulose respiration occur?
matrix
Where does Kreb's Cycle occur?
glycolysis
Which step of cellular respiration doesn't require oxygen?
NADH and FADH2
What provides the electrons for oxidative phosphorylation?
proton pump
An electron transport chain is also known as?
intermembrane space
Cellular Respiration: Where does a proton gradient occur?
intermembrane space
Cellular Respiration: What space would have a lower pH?
oxygen
After the electron goes through the electron chain, what molecule comes to take the electron? (actual name)
chemiosmosis
the coupling of active with passive transport of those H+
oxygen
What is the final electron acceptor (actual name)?
3
1 NADH can make how many ATP?
2
1 FADH2 can make how many ATP?
fermentation
Another word for anaerobic respiration
yeast
What is an example of alcohol fermentation?
ethanol
What is the end or waste product of alcoholic fermentation?
lactic acid
What kind of fermentation can humans use?
obligate aerobes
99% of all creatures are what?
- Obligated to have O2
- Can ferment
obligate anaerobes
Bacteria of this kind cannot have oxygen.
38
Bacteria can produce how much ATP from cellular respiration?
facultative
Yeast is an example of this type of anaerobes.
288
1 triglyceride can produce how much ATP?
deamination
What is the removal of an amino group?
autotrophs
What kind of organisms go through photosynthesis?
autotrophs
Anything that makes its own food
CO2
Photosynthesis: What is being reduced? (Chemical formula)
glucose
Photosynthesis: What is CO2 being reduced to?
water
Photosynthesis: What is being oxidized?
oxygen
Photosynthesis: What is water being reduced to?
NADP
Photosynthesis: "electron shuttle", conenzyme
NADP+
oxidized form of NADP
NADP+
electron empty form of NADP
NADPH
reduced form of NADP
NADPH
electron full from of NADP
dark reaction
Which step of photosynthesis makes food?
light reaction
Which step of photosynthesis makes ATP?
O18
What is the isotope of oxygen known as heavy oxygen?
photooxidation
The process of light to emit an electron
carotenoids
chlorophyll that are yellows, red, oranges
photosystem
functional unit of photosynthesis
photosystem
An antenna and a primary electron acceptor make up a...?
noncyclic
Noncyclic/cyclic: What kind of photophosphorylation is the light reaction?
NADP Reductase
After the second light event, what receives the electron?
cyclic
Noncyclic/cyclic: What kind of photophosphorylation occurs when you don't receive oxygen?
cyclic
Noncyclic/cyclic: What kind of photophosphorylation occurs when you don't have NADPH?
Calvin Cycle
Another name for the dark reaction
RuBP
Photosynthesis: 5C of dark reaction
stroma
Where does the dark reaction occur?
glyceraldehydes
In the dark reaction when NADPH and ATP are added to 3C, what high phosphorylated compounds are produced? (plural)
phosphoglyceric acids
RuBP breaks into two 3C compounds called...?
ATP
What is needed for enzymes to break down the 3C to make it RuBP?
photorespiration
the problem with RuBP
transpiration
loss of water out of stomata (worse on a hot, windy day)
C3
typical plants
C4
prairie grasses and corn
CAM
desert plants
CAM
Types of plants that close stomata all day
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