38 terms

Organs and their Functions

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Nose
Collects air from the environment and moistens and heats the air before it enters the trachea
Trachea
The windpipe; moves air from the nose to the lungs
Bronchi (sg., bronchus)
Tubes that move air from the trachea to the lungs; one bronchus leads to each lung; part of each bronchus is outside the lung and part is inside.
Lungs
The main organs where gases are exchanged between air and the blood; the alveoli in the lungs are where the gas exchange takes place.
Diaphragm
The muscle that aids in the breathing process
Heart
Causes blood to flow through the body by its pumping action
Blood vessels
Tubes that carry blood throughout the entire body.
Arteries
It carries blood that has oxygen and nutrients to all the parts of the body.
Veins
It carries waste products (for example carbon dioxide) from all the parts of the body back to the heart.
Capillaries
Very small vessels where oxygen and nutrients leave the blood to go into the cells and carbon dioxide and other waste products enter the blood from the cells.
Blood
Composed of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma that have different functions.
Mouth
Begins to break down food into smaller pieces through mechanical digestion; saliva in the mouth starts the process of chemical digestion
Esophagus
The transport tube that carries chewed food to the stomach
Stomach
Continues the process of mechanical digestion; and secretes gastric juices that continue the process of chemical digestion started in the mouth
Small intestines
The organ where most of the chemical digestion of food takes place; nutrients from food are also absorbed through the small intestines
Large intestines
The organ where water is absorbed from the food and taken into the bloodstream; prepares the remaining undigested food for elimination from the body
Rectum and anus
The rectum is a short tube that stores solid waste until it is eliminated from the body through the anus.
Liver
A secondary organ of the digestive system that produces bile, which is used by the body to break up fat particles.
Gallbladder
A secondary organ to the digestive system that functions to store bile produced by the liver.
Pancreas
A secondary organ to the digestive system that functions to produce digestive juices that help to further break down the food in the small intestine.
Kidneys
The two kidneys get rid of urea, excess water, and some other waste materials released by the cells. These are eliminated as urine.
Ureters
Tubes which connect each kidney to the bladder
Bladder
A saclike muscular organ which stores urine until it is released from the body
Urethra
Tube through which urine passes before it is removed from the body
Brain
An organ of the central nervous system, which has three distinct parts that all serve to control and coordinate the activities of the body.
Cerebrum
This part of the brain controls thoughts, voluntary actions, and the sensations related to the five senses.
Cerebellum
This part of the brain helps with balance and coordination.
Brain stem
Part of the brain that is located at the base of the brain and controls vital and involuntary processes (for example, breathing, the beating of the heart, and digestion).
Spinal cord
A bundle of nerves that begins at the brain stem and continues down the center of the back through the vertebrae. It connects with the peripheral nerves.
Peripheral nerves
A network of nerves that branch out from the spinal cord and connect to the rest of the body and transmit signals to and from the brain through the spinal cord.
Skeletal muscles
Voluntary muscles attached to bones and provide the force needed to move the bones; tendons connect the skeletal muscles to bones
Smooth muscles
Involuntary muscles that control many types of movement within the body (such as digestion)
Cardiac muscles
Involuntary muscle that forms the heart
Bones
Provide shape and support for the body and protection for many organs and structures; some bones produce blood cells; some store minerals
Joints
Occur where two or more bones meet
Ligaments
A fibrous connective tissue that attaches bones at the joints
Tendon
A fibrous connective tissue which attaches muscle to bone.
Skin
Covers the body and prevents the loss of water; it protects the body from infection and injury; it helps to regulate body temperature, get rid of wastes (sweat), receive information from the environment and produce vitamin D.