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Ch 5 Shaping a New Nation

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republic
a government in which citizens rule through elected representatives
republicanism
the idea that governments should be based on the consent of the people
Articles of Confederation
America's first constitution
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Federal order that divided the Northwest Territory into smaller territories and created a plan for how the territories could become states.
confederation
the act of forming an alliance or confederation
Shays's Rebellion
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
James Madison
Father of the Constitution
Roger Sherman
He helped draft the Great Compromise that determined how states would be represented in Congress
Great Compromise
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
Three-Fifths Compromise
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
federalism
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
legislative branch
the branch of government that makes the laws.
executive branch
the branch of government that carries out laws
judicial branch
The branch of government that interprets laws
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
electoral college
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
ratification
official approval
Federalists
supporters of the constitution
Antifederalists
People who opposed the constitution
The Federalist
series of 85 essays written mostly by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton defending the Constitution
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution