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Biology Chap. 3 - 5 Ecology Review
Chapters 3 - 5 Test Review
Terms in this set (81)
the scientific study of interactions among and between organisms and their physical environment.
Level of organization (smallest to largest)
Population (level of organization)
a group of individuals that belongs to the same species and live in the same area.
Community (level of organization)
an assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area.
Ecosystem (level of organization)
all the organisms that liv in a place, together with their physical environment.
Biome (level of organization)
a group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms.
Biosphere (level of organization)
our entire planet, with all its organisms and physical environments.
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
links all of the food chains in an ecosystem together show how all the animals in a ecosystem interact by how they provide energy for themselves.
Primary producers (definition)
the first producers of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms.
Primary producers get their food from organisms called
Primary producers for land are
Primary producers for water are
organism that relies on other organisms for its energy and nutrients; also called heterotrophy
Types of Consumers:
Carnivores (type of consumer)
kill and eat other animals
Scavengers (type of consumer)
animals that consume the carcasses of other animals that have been killed by predators.
Herbivores (type of consumer)
obtain energy and nutrients by eating plant leaves, roots, seeds, or fruits.
Omnivores (type of consumer)
animals whose diets naturally include a variety of different foods that usually include both plants and animals.
Decomposers (type of consumer)
such as bacteria and fungi "feed" by chemically breaking down organic matter.
Detritivores (type of consumer)
commonly digest decomposers that live on, and in detritus particles.
organism that breaks down and obtains energy form dead organic matter.
Decomposers are important because
without decomposers nutrients would remain locked with dead organisms.
Decomposers fit in at
the beginning and end of the food chain and food web because they break down organism into reusable nutrients for the primary producer.
another name for consumer
another name for autotrophs
Types of ecological pyramids:
Pyramids of Energy
Pyramids of Biomass
Pyramids of Numbers
Pyramids of Energy shows:
the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level.
Pyramids of Biomass shows:
the total amount of living tissues within a given trophic level. Typically, the greatest biomass is at the base of the pyramid.
Pyramids of Numbers show:
the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
Each step of a food chain and pyramid are called:
How much energy is able to pass to each level of a pyramid or food chain?
Be able to calculate the energy transfers.
A pyramid of numbers might not look like a pyramid of biomass or energy when -
the consumers are much less than the organisms they feed upon.
the day-to-day condition of Earth's atmosphere.
refers to average conditions over long periods.
Factors that affect climate:
solar energy trapped in the biosphere.
the transport of heat by winds and ocean currents
greenhouse effect (definition)
process in which certain gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor) rap sunlight energy in Earth's atmosphere as heat.
Without the greenhouse effect -
Earth would be about 30º Celsius cooler than it is today.
What creates Wind?
The unequal distribution of heat across the globe.
abiotic factor (definition)
physical components of an ecosystem. A nonliving part of the environment.
biotic factor (definition)
the biological influence of organisms. Any living part of the environment which an organism might interact.
abiotic factor (examples)
biotic factor (examples)
describes not only what an organism does, but also how it interacts the biotic and abiotic factors in the environment; the range of physical and biological condition in which a species lives and the way the species obtains what it needs to survive and reproduce.
can refer to any necessity of life, such as water nutrients, light, food, or space.
when organisms attempting to use the same limited ecological resource in the same place at the same time.
competition happens when:
different species compete for the same resource, this almost always produces a winner and a loser - and the losing species dies out.
Some species can occupy the same niche with having competition by:
Competitive exclusion principle states:
that no two species can occupy exactly the same niche in exactly the same habitat at exactly the same time.
An interaction in which one animal (the predator) captures and feeds on another animal (the prey) is called predation.
If there is an increase in the predator:
there will be not be enough prey for all the predators to survive.
If there is a decrease in the predator:
there will be an abundance of prey for the predators to survive.
any relationship in which two species live closely together.
Types of Symbiosis:
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it.
symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed.
a series of more-or-less predictable changes that occur in a community over time.
Primary Succession (definition)
succession that occurs in an area in which no trace of precious community is present.
Primary Succession (example)
pioneer species are the first species to colonize barren areas
Secondary succession (definition)
type of succession that occurs in an area that was only partially destroyed by disturbance.
Secondary Succession (example)
soil survives the disturbance, as a result, new and surviving vegetation can regrow rapidly.
Characteristics Of a Population
Density & Distribution
Geographic Range (definition)
the area inhabited by a population
Density refers to:
the number of individuals per unit area.
Distribution refers to:
how individuals in a population are spaced out across the range of the population.
Growth Rate (definition)
determines whether the size of the population increases, decreases, or stays the same.
Age Structure (definition)
the number of males and females of each age a population contains.
Factors that lead to population growth:
rate at which individuals enter or leave a population
the process of individuals moving into a range from elsewhere.
the process of individuals moving out of the populations range.
exponential growth (definition)
the larger the population gets, the faster it grows.
exponential growth (cause)
after a short time, the population begins to grow exponentially. During this phase, resources are unlimited, so individuals grow and reproduce rapidly. Few individuals die, and many offspring are produced, so both the population size and the rate of growth increase more and more rapidly.
carrying capacity (definition)
the maximum number of individuals of a particular species that a particular environment can support.
occurs when a population's growth slows and then stops, following a period of exponential growth.
limiting factor (definition)
factors that cause population growth to decrease.
Density Dependent (definition)
operate strongly only when population density - the number of organisms per unit area reaches a certain level.
Density Dependent (example)
Predation and Herbivory
Parasitism and Disease
Stress From Overcrowding
Density Independent limiting factors (definition)
affects all population in similar ways, regardless of population size and density.
Density Independent limiting factors (example)
weather - hurricanes, droughts, or floods.
natural disasters - wildfires
Recommended textbook explanations
Nelson Science Perspectives 10
Christy C. Hayhoe, Doug Hayhoe, Jeff Major, Maurice DiGiuseppe
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Elevate Middle Grade Science 2019 Student Edition Grade 7
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