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Cardiostimulatory effects of the cardiac center are transmitted to the heart via fibers of the _______ branch of the automatic nervous system


Pulmonary Circuits

(Right Side)
carries blood to the lungs for gas exchange and returns t to the heart

Systematic Circuit

(Left Side)
supplies blood to every organ of the body including other parts of the lungs and the wall of the heart itself.


a double-walled sac which the heart is enclosed

The outer wall of the heart sac

pericardial sac

epicardium/visceral pericardium

outermost layer of the heart wall, has a layer of epithelial tissue and loose connective tissue


the actual muscle of the heart, it consist of cardiac tissue and fibrous skeleton


a simple squamous epithelium called endothelium. Smooth muscle so the blood can flow through

right and left atria

thin walled receiving chambers for blood returning to the heart by the way of the great veins


an ear like extension of the atrium which slightly increases its volume.

The pericardial sac is also know as the

parietal pericardium

The difference between the maximum and resting cardiac output is known as

cardiac reserve

In a healthy person at rest, the_____ node normally fires about 75 times per minute setting the heart


Fibrous Skeleton

provides structural support for the heart preventing the valves and great vessels from excessively stretching when blood surges through them

Fibrous Skeleton

anchors cardiocytes and gives them something to pull against

nonconductor of electricity, a electrical insulation between the atria and the ventricles so the atria cannot stimulate the ventricles directly

Fibrous Skeleton

right and left ventricles

pumps that enject blood into the arteries and keeps it flowing

Right ventricle

constitutes most of the anterior aspect of the heart

Left Ventricle

forms the apex and inferoposterior aspect

The pacemaker potential of SA node cells is due to the influx of what ions


encircles the heart near the base and separates the atria above the ventricles below

coronary (atrioventricular) sulcus


right atrium and both auricles exhibit internal ridges of myocardium


a valve which consists of 2 or 3 fibrous flaps of tissue which are covered in endocardium

Right Av cusps has

3 cusps

Left Av Cusps/mitral valve

2 cusps

semilunar valve/ (pulmonary and aortic valve)

regulate the flow of blood from the ventricles into the great arteries

pulmonary valve

controls the opening from the right ventricle into the pulmonry trunk

aortic valve

controls the opening from the left ventricle into the aorta

When ventricles contract , blood surging against the ____________ valves forces them closed.

atrioventricular Valve the (AV)

Blood pressure in the great arteries determine the __________ of the heart


A difference in pressure creates a pressure __________ that directs the flow of fluids.


The artery that exist the aorta, travels under the left auricle and the divides them into the two branches is the left __________ artery


The _________ center of the medulla oblangata initiates automatic output to the heart


which chemicals can cause the increase in HR

caffeine, nicotine, thyroid hormone

The strength of the preload is is defined as the

contractility of the myocardium

within the onset of ventricular contraction the pressure within the ventricles will


the opening and closing of the heart are governed by changes in ______ within heart chambers


The contraction of a cardiocyte occurs during the ____________ of its action potential


Parasympathetic nerve fibers transmit ___________ effects from the cardiac center of the heart


The heartbeat is described as __________ because the signal for contraction originates in the heart muscle itself.


the difference between maximum cardiac output and resting cardiac output is referred to as the cardiac


Seepage of fluid from the atrium to the paracardial cavity is know as

pericardial effussion

When two arteries or veins join this is know as


The _____________________ artery branches out to the left coronary artery that continues around to the back of the heart in the coronary sulcus


The amount of tension in the ventricular myocardium immediately before it begins to contract


The groove that extends downward to the from the coronary sulcus on the front of the heart is the anterior ____________ sulcus


The opening and closing of heart valves are governed by changes in _______ within the heart chamber


The alternate name for the left AV is the

mitral valve

The pacemaker potential of SA node cells is due to the influx of _____________ ions.


During which phase of the cardiac cycle does the blood flow through the coronary circulation

ventricular diastole

A region of spontaneous firing of the conduction system system of the heart other than the SA or NA node

ectopic focus

The left and right coronary arteries arise from the


closing of the aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves produces the ____ heart sound


The closing of the atrioventricular valves produce which part of the heart sounds


The left _________ vein is the blood vessel that collects venous drainage from the apex and the left of the heart.


ventricular contraction begins at the


Abnormal effects of the interatrial or interventricular walls resulting in abnormal blood flow though the heart

septal defects

steady background firing of the vagus nerve

vagal tone

The cardiac nerves convey signals from the __________ nervous system, a autnomic nervous system to the heart


The condition called ____________ involves compression of the heart by abnormal accumulation of the fluid or clotted blood in the parietal cavity

cardiac tamponade

Coronary artery disease

constriction of the coronary arteries, usually by atherosclerosis

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