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61 terms

Chapter 10 Circulatory System

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Cardiostimulatory effects of the cardiac center are transmitted to the heart via fibers of the _______ branch of the automatic nervous system
sympathetic
Pulmonary Circuits
(Right Side)
carries blood to the lungs for gas exchange and returns t to the heart
Systematic Circuit
(Left Side)
supplies blood to every organ of the body including other parts of the lungs and the wall of the heart itself.
Pericardium
a double-walled sac which the heart is enclosed
The outer wall of the heart sac
pericardial sac
epicardium/visceral pericardium
outermost layer of the heart wall, has a layer of epithelial tissue and loose connective tissue
Myocardium
the actual muscle of the heart, it consist of cardiac tissue and fibrous skeleton
Endocardium
a simple squamous epithelium called endothelium. Smooth muscle so the blood can flow through
right and left atria
thin walled receiving chambers for blood returning to the heart by the way of the great veins
Auricle
an ear like extension of the atrium which slightly increases its volume.
The pericardial sac is also know as the
parietal pericardium
The difference between the maximum and resting cardiac output is known as
cardiac reserve
In a healthy person at rest, the_____ node normally fires about 75 times per minute setting the heart
SA
Fibrous Skeleton
provides structural support for the heart preventing the valves and great vessels from excessively stretching when blood surges through them
Fibrous Skeleton
anchors cardiocytes and gives them something to pull against
nonconductor of electricity, a electrical insulation between the atria and the ventricles so the atria cannot stimulate the ventricles directly
Fibrous Skeleton
right and left ventricles
pumps that enject blood into the arteries and keeps it flowing
Right ventricle
constitutes most of the anterior aspect of the heart
Left Ventricle
forms the apex and inferoposterior aspect
The pacemaker potential of SA node cells is due to the influx of what ions
sodium
encircles the heart near the base and separates the atria above the ventricles below
coronary (atrioventricular) sulcus
PECTINATE MUSCLES
right atrium and both auricles exhibit internal ridges of myocardium
cusps/leaflets
a valve which consists of 2 or 3 fibrous flaps of tissue which are covered in endocardium
Right Av cusps has
3 cusps
Left Av Cusps/mitral valve
2 cusps
semilunar valve/ (pulmonary and aortic valve)
regulate the flow of blood from the ventricles into the great arteries
pulmonary valve
controls the opening from the right ventricle into the pulmonry trunk
aortic valve
controls the opening from the left ventricle into the aorta
When ventricles contract , blood surging against the ____________ valves forces them closed.
atrioventricular Valve the (AV)
Blood pressure in the great arteries determine the __________ of the heart
afterload
A difference in pressure creates a pressure __________ that directs the flow of fluids.
gradient
The artery that exist the aorta, travels under the left auricle and the divides them into the two branches is the left __________ artery
coronary
The _________ center of the medulla oblangata initiates automatic output to the heart
cardiac
which chemicals can cause the increase in HR
caffeine, nicotine, thyroid hormone
The strength of the preload is is defined as the
contractility of the myocardium
within the onset of ventricular contraction the pressure within the ventricles will
increase
the opening and closing of the heart are governed by changes in ______ within heart chambers
increases
The contraction of a cardiocyte occurs during the ____________ of its action potential
plateau
Parasympathetic nerve fibers transmit ___________ effects from the cardiac center of the heart
cardioinhibatory
The heartbeat is described as __________ because the signal for contraction originates in the heart muscle itself.
myogenic
the difference between maximum cardiac output and resting cardiac output is referred to as the cardiac
reserve
Seepage of fluid from the atrium to the paracardial cavity is know as
pericardial effussion
When two arteries or veins join this is know as
anastomosis
The _____________________ artery branches out to the left coronary artery that continues around to the back of the heart in the coronary sulcus
circumflex
The amount of tension in the ventricular myocardium immediately before it begins to contract
preload
The groove that extends downward to the from the coronary sulcus on the front of the heart is the anterior ____________ sulcus
interventricular
The opening and closing of heart valves are governed by changes in _______ within the heart chamber
pressure
The alternate name for the left AV is the
mitral valve
The pacemaker potential of SA node cells is due to the influx of _____________ ions.
sodium
During which phase of the cardiac cycle does the blood flow through the coronary circulation
ventricular diastole
A region of spontaneous firing of the conduction system system of the heart other than the SA or NA node
ectopic focus
The left and right coronary arteries arise from the
aorta
closing of the aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves produces the ____ heart sound
dub
The closing of the atrioventricular valves produce which part of the heart sounds
first
The left _________ vein is the blood vessel that collects venous drainage from the apex and the left of the heart.
marginal
ventricular contraction begins at the
APEX
Abnormal effects of the interatrial or interventricular walls resulting in abnormal blood flow though the heart
septal defects
steady background firing of the vagus nerve
vagal tone
The cardiac nerves convey signals from the __________ nervous system, a autnomic nervous system to the heart
sympathetic
The condition called ____________ involves compression of the heart by abnormal accumulation of the fluid or clotted blood in the parietal cavity
cardiac tamponade
Coronary artery disease
constriction of the coronary arteries, usually by atherosclerosis