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NES Social Science: Geography
Terms in this set (39)
The process of integrating an organism into a community
Human designed/developed environment.
The ability of land to hold a population that an environment can support.
Interaction among cultures and in some cases adaptation or accomidation such that initially distinct cultures become more similar as a result of that interaction
The spread of ideas or behaviors associated with one culture, to another.
Demographic Transition Model/ Population Cycle
1. High Stationary= Birth and death rates are equal and high.
2. Early expanding= Birth rates remain high, death rate declines.
3. Late expanding- death rate continues to decline, birth rate begins to decline.
4. Low Stationary- birth and death rates are about equal and both low.
5. Declining- Death rate becomes higher than birth rate
Central Place Theory
The idea that in an unevenly distributed population, settlements arise to serve as "central place," which produce goods & services for the surrounding areas.
The process by which cultural traits, practices, or products spread from an area of origin over space and through time.
Mutual dependence between regions
i.e. wet & dry
In population studies, the amount of time for the population to double, if rate of growth remains constant
The study of ecosystems (i.e., the physical environment and the biological community it supports). Coral reefs and deserts are examples.
Creation of distinct groups or cultures based on ethnicity. The battle between the Hutu and the Tutsis in Rwanda is an example; the system of apartheid that prevailed for many years in South Africa is another.
The bias toward viewing and/or evaluating other cultures against one's own. Ethnocentrism often involves a feeling that one's own culture is superior to others.
The environment in which an organism is naturally found.
In geography, the relation among parts of an ecological or cultural system, where each part plays a role that affects the other parts.
Maximum sustainable yield
The greatest amount of a species that can be removed and still replaced in natural order. If hunters or fishermen consistently trap, kill, or collect animals beyond the maximum sustainable yield, the species will eventually die out because the capture rate exceeds the natural birth rate.
Drawn so that relative size of geographical features (i.e., square feet or kilometers) is preserved. A disadvantage of these maps is that they can distort the shapes of land masses and bodies of water.
Drawn to preserve accurate distances from a given point, which are usually placed at the center of the map. For example, an equidistant projection with Los Angeles as the center will be drawn so that both San Francisco and Las Vegas are shown at accurate distances from Los Angeles, using the same scale. A disadvantage is that distances from other places are not accurate. In this example, the distance between San Francisco and Las Vegas will be less accurate because the scale is set based on distance from Los Angeles.
Drawn to preserve accurate directions from a given point. The scale of a gnomonic projection changes based on distance from the center point, and thus distortion of shapes is greatest for areas furthest from that point.
Which are collections of maps
Are annual reports typically containing astronomical and meteorological information for the upcoming year
Gazetteers or geographic dictionaries.
Gazetteers and geographic dictionaries, or sources that name and describe places, typically including location, population, and key physical features
Collections of short articles on key topics in an area
Lists of references on a particular topic
Includes demographic information collected every 10 years in the US
From federal agencies such as the USGS or the USFS
Maps, photographs, other human-made tools and objects
Satellite images and aerial photographs
Showing landmasses bodies of water, weather patterns, and other geographical information
Geographic information systems (GIS).
Database software that includes geographical information that helps tag an item in space. Most contemporary maps are created digitally by using GIS. GIS can be used for a variety of purposes, including calculating population density, surveying land or other geographical features, or monitoring environmental conditions.
Global positioning systems (GPS).
Navigational devices that determine absolute position based on signals from satellites. GPS devices assist drivers to navigate from place to place, runners to determine their current pace, and scientists to take measurements of the environment
Selecting a topic.
Good research topics typically address a problem and provide suggestions for a solution, based on previous research findings and/or new data. Topics should be researchable, narrowly defined, and appropriate for the audience.
Conducting research on the topic.
Research can involve identification and evaluation of primary and secondary sources in the library and on the Internet, conduction of interviews with experts, or collection of new data in the field or in the laboratory. When evaluating sources, researchers should consider
Possible biases. For example,
For example, studies supported by corporations with monetary interests in the outcomes. Look for emotionally charged language or exaggerated claims. Identify the difference between facts and opinions.
Author expertise and frame of reference.
For example, studies conducted by university faculty with advanced degrees versus studies conducted for undergraduate credit. Try to identify the author's educational and professional background; this information is often presented in a footnote to an article, the introductory pages of a text, or an "about us" link on a website.
The purpose for which a source is written.
For example, articles that present an argument may be more one-sided than those intended to provide a description. Consider the thesis and/or title first, then consider the language used and the evidence presented.
This requires evaluation and critical thinking. For example, determine if the main idea is sound and consider whether the conclusion follows logically.
Data can be original or can be secondary information to support a point. Original data should be complete and unbiased. Data can be very effective when presented in graphic or table format
Analysis includes identifying main ideas and distinguishing them from supporting details; evaluating cause-and-effect relationships, including determining if an event has more than one cause or effect and identifying whether events may be both causes and effects. Data analysis is additionally used for distinguishing between facts and opinion, determining the adequacy and relevance of information, and comparing different viewpoints, among other critical thinking skills.
Researchers form conclusions by making inferences about the data — suggesting a cause-effect relationship, proposing a new solution to a problem, or offering an interpretation for an event. Conclusions should be logically derived from the data but should not stray far beyond the data presented and analyzed.
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