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Terms in this set (50)
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
The language ability required for verbal face-to-face
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
The language ability required for academic achievement
Castaneda v. Pickard
June 23, 1981; three-part test for evaluate adequacy of district's ELL program. 1) is it based on educational theory recognized by experts as sound or as a legitimate experimental strategy? 2) are programs and practices, including resources & personnel, reasonably calculated to implement theory correctly? and 3) does district evaluate its programs and make adjustments where needed to ensure language barriers are being overcome?
makes use of instructional materials, learning tasks, and classroom techniques from academic content areas as the vehicle for developing language, content, cognitive and study skills
Dual Language Immersion
Also known as two-way or developmental, the goal of these bilingual programs is for students to develop language proficiency in two languages by receiving instruction in English and another language in a classroom usually comprised of half native English speakers and half native speakers of other language. Equal footing for both ELLs and English speakers. Promotes cross-cultural understanding. Done in 90/10 model, and 50/50 model.
English Language Learner
National-origin-minority student who is limited-English-proficient. Term often preferred over LEP as it highlights accomplishments rather than deficits
English as a Second Language
program of techniques, methodology and special curriculum designed to teach ELL students English language skills, which may include listening, speaking, reading, writing, study skills, content vocabulary, and cultural orientation. ESL instruction is usually given in English with little use of native language
Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974
Civil rights statute prohibits states from denying equal educational opportunity to an individual on account of his/her race, color, sex or natural origin. Prohibits states from denying equal educational opportunity by failure of an educational agency to take appropriate action to overcome language barriers that impede equal participation by its students in its instructional process.
Fully English Proficient
Informed Parental Consent
Permission of a parent to enroll their child in ELL program, or the refusal to allow their child to enroll in such a program, after the parent is provided effective notice of the educational options and the district's educational recommendation
measurement of the degree of bilingualism, which implies a comparison of the proficiencies in two or more languages
Lau v. Nichols
Class action suit brought by parents of non-English-proficient Chinese students against San Francisco Unified School District. In 1974, Supreme Court ruled that identical education does not constitute equal education under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Ruling that district must take affirmative steps to overcome educational barriers faced by non-English speaking Chinese students in the district
Limited English Proficient
Maintenance Bilingual Education
also referred to as late-exit bilingual education to national, uses two languages (student's primary language and English), as a means of instruction. Builds upon student's primary language skills and develops and expands the English language skills of student to enable him/her to achieve proficiency in both languages while providing access to content areas
May 25 Memorandum
To clarify a school district's responsibilities with respect to national-origin-minority children, the U.S. Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare, on May 25, 1970, issued a policy statement stating, in part, that "where inablility to speak and understand the English language exclueds national-origin-minority group children from effective participation in the educational program offered by a school district, the district must take affirmative steps to rectify the language deficiency in order to open the instructional program to students.
Separate, relatively self-contained educational interventions designed to meet the academic and transitional needs of newly arrived immigrants. Typically, students attend these programs before they enter more traditional interventions. Students must be assessed w/ approved method to qualify. Includes a lot of L1 support. Criticisms: expensive, segregates, lack of content.
Sheltered English Instruction
An instructional approach used to make academic instruction in English understandable to ELL students. Teachers use physical activities, visual aids, and the environment to teach vocabulary for concept development in mathematics, science, social studies, and other subjects.
Structured English Immersion Program
The goal of this program is acquisition of English language skills so that the ELL student can succeed in an English-only mainstream classroom. All instruction in an immersion strategy program is in English. Teachers have specialized training in meeting the needs of ELL students, possessing either a bilingual education or ESL teaching credential and/or training, and strong receptive skills in the students' primary language.
Places ELL students in a regular English-only program with little or no support services on the theory that they will pick up English naturally. The program should not be confused with a structured English immersion program.
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Prohibits discrimination on the grounds of race, color, or national origin by recipients of federal financial assistance. Requirements have been interpreted to prohibit denial of equal access to education because of a language minority student's limited proficiency in English.
Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act
Also known as the Bilingual Education Act. Resisted by some immigrant communities. Recognizes the unique educational disadvantages faced by non-English speaking students. Enacted in 1968. Established federal policy to assist educational agencies to serve students with LEP by authorizing funding to support those efforts. Also supports professional development and research activities. Reauthorized in 1994 as part of the Improving America's Schools Act to provied for increased state role and give priority to applicants seeking to develop bilingual proficiency. Comes down to acculturation v. assimilation. Original version did not include definition of Bilingual Education.
Transitional Bilingual Education Program
Also known as early-exit bilingual education. Utilizes student's primary language in instruction. Maintains and develops skills in the primary language and culture while introducing, maintaining, and developing skills in English. Primary purpose is to facilitate ELL student's transition to all English instructional program while receiving academic subject instruction in the native language to the extent necessary. Usually 2 to 3 years until mainstreamed. Leads to subtractive bilingualism.
study of the rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences and the rules governing the arrangement of sentences in sequence
study of the sound systems of languages
study of the structure of words
study of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences
study of language in use, including the study of "invisible" meaning or how we recognize what is meant even when it is not actually stated
vocabulary of a language
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
Targets students from low-income families; brought about Civil Rights movement; six reauthorizations since 1968 which all resulted in changes to Bilingual Education Act (Title VII); includes all ELLs; undermined by NCLB
Also known as Title III. Replaced Bilingual Education Act. Formula grants to state agencies.
Adequate Yearly Progress
Measured by performance on outcome based tests. Part of NCLB. Districts can now apply for waiver to be exempt from meeting AYP. Goal is that everyone will have 100% proficiency by 2014.
Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives
How schools are held accountable for AYP of ELL students
World-Class Instructional Design & Assessment
Consortium of states re: ELL, joint development of resources to comply w/ demands of NCLB. Designed and implemented ELP standards and accompanying language proficiency assessment, marketed as ACCESS for ELLs. Impacts policy and ELL assessments.
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages English Language Proficiency standards; modified original standards to meet NCLB mandates. More political than most teacher organizations. In favor of bilingual education.
Heritage Language Program
In-school, after school, or weekend programs in which language minority students have the opportunity to learn their native, or heritage, language. For ELLs and English L1 speakers; offered @ high school level as classes such as "spanish for spanish speakers"; adheres to grade level content standards for foreign language; promotes bi-culturalism.
ESL teacher goes into regular classroom; can team teach w/ classroom teacher if content is familiar; diverse language representation; little L1 support
Students pulled out of class for ESL class; goal is communicative competence; little L1 support - most instruction in English; diverse language groups; missing primary content; can provide safe place for ELL students.
Compliance standards issued by the Office of Civil Rights of the US Dept. of Justice to ensure that schools and districts implement proper approaches, methods and procedures related to the education of ELLs.
5 Stages of Proficiency
Pre-production, early production, speech emergence, intermediate, advanced (Krashen & Terrell)
Brown v. Board of Education
U.S. Supreme Court decision ending segregation
Meyer v. Nebraska
U.S. Supreme Court decision protecting the right of language minority communities to offer private language classes
Lau v. Nichols
U.S. Supreme Court decision declaring that it is illegal to ignore the needs of ELL students
Castanada v. Pickard
Federal court decision outlining a three-prong test to determine whether a school is taking appropriate action to address the needs of ELL students
Three essential components of effective ELL programs
Primary language support
ESL instructional time
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
Provides feedback to classroom teachers on sheltered instruction, also used for lesson planning
Four Stages of Culture Shock
1) Euphoric/Honeymoon 2) Culture Shock 3) Integration
Approaches & Methods to L2 Instruction
1) Grammar Translation 2) Audiolingual Method 3) Natural Approach 4) Communicative Language Teaching
5) Content Based Instruction
Culturally Responsive Pedagogy
The greater the gap between culture at school and home, greater likelihood of poor achievement. Conversely, the smaller the gap, the higher likelihood of high achievement.
Five Stages of Communicative Competence
1) Grammatical Comptence 2) Discourse Competence
3) Sociolinguistic Competence 4) Strategic Competence
5) Pragmatic Competence
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