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354 terms

6th Grade Social Studies Unabridged Terms

This is the complete set of people, places, and other terms related to 6th grade social studies/world cultures. Credit goes to Ms. Cowart for creating the original gloassary from which this was adopted.
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Aboriginal
native to a region; describes people inhabiting a land before the arrival of colonists
Aborigines
indigenous people of Australia
Acid rain
rain polluted with chemicals
Agrarian
a term describing a society that is based on agriculture
Allied Powers
Britain, France, Russia; those nations involved in World War I that were led by Great Britain , Russia, and France; the United States later joined the Allied Powers
Allies
countries / nations who are friends and support one another
Amazon River
A massive river in South America; more water drains out of the Amazon than out of any other river on Earth
Andes Mountains
The mountain range along the western side of South America more than 5,000 miles long, and home to the highest mountains in the Western Hemisphere
Annex
to add territory; to take over a piece of another nation's land
Arable
land that is able to be farmed
Anti-Semitism
prejudice against Jewish people
Archipelago
a chain of islands
Arctic
the region around the North Pole
Aristocracy, aristocratic
having to do with royalty/monarchy
Armistice
a temporary halt in fighting; a truce
Astronomy
the study of stars and their positions
Atacama Desert
a desert region on the coast of northern Chile, sparsely inhabited, but rich in minerals
Atahualpa
leader of the Incas (known as "Sapa Inca"). During the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the Spaniard Francisco Pizarro captured him and used him to control the Inca empire before executing him.
Authoritarian
a word that describes a political system in which people of a country must obey the ruling power
Autocratic or Autocracy
government in which one person possesses unlimited power and the citizen has little, if any, role in the government (example: Cuba). Most dictators maintain their position through inheritance of military power (fear, violence). People who try to speak out against the government are often silenced through the use of power.
Ayers Rock
a giant stone monolith in Australia's Northern Territory; one of the country's most famous natural features
Axis Powers
an alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan that fought against the Allies during World War II
Aztec
native people of central Mexico whose civilization was at its height at the time of the Spanish conquest in the early 16th century
Barter
to exchange, or trade, one good for another
Battle of Stalingrad
World War II battle considered to be the bloodiest in human history; it last from 1942 to 1943
Bering Land Bridge
a narrow area of land that once joined Siberia to Alaska
Berlin Wall
a wall in Germany that separated East and West Berlin from 1961 to 1989
Bicameral
a legislature with two branches
British Commonwealth
a voluntary association of independent nations and dependent territories linked by historical ties as part of the former British empire, and cooperation on matters of mutual concern like economics and trade.
British North America Trade Act
a law passed in 1867 under which Canadian colonies united to form a new country, governed by a new constitution
Cabinet
a group of people appointed by a president or prime minister to give advice and help run the government
Canadian Shield
a plateau region of eastern Canada extending from the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River northward to the Arctic Ocean
Capital goods
equipment used by a company to produce other goods
Capitalism
an economic system in which private owners control the production of goods and profit
Caribbean Sea
a large body of water in the western Atlantic Ocean, to the south bordered by South America, to the west bordered by Central America, and to the north by Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic
Cartography
the making of maps and charts
Catholic
this word actually means "universal", but when capitalized, refers to the Roman Catholic church. Roman Catholics were some of the first Christians.
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria, when they fought against the Allied Powers during World War I.
Chancellor
chief executive in Germany
Chernobyl
a city in north central Ukraine where in 1986 a large Nuclear Power Plant exploded during stress testing causing the leakage of massive amounts of radiation
Chief executive
the #1 person in charge of the country; we call ours PRESIDENT
Christopher Columbus
believed that the Bahamas were part of Asia; was an Italian sailor who thought that if the world was round instead of flat, then you should be able to sail to India to buy spices by going west instead of east. Convinced the king and queen of Spain to give him 3 ships, let him try to prove that he was right. He did not get to India, he did find the islands of the Caribbean including present day Haiti
Clandestine
to meet in secret
Cold war
began in 1945, period of distrust between Soviet Union and its former allies in the West, particularly the United States; Germany was divided into two parts, East Germany and West Germany
Colonization
to form a colony, to settle a colony
Colony
a foreign area controlled by a country and contributing to its wealth; any people or territory separated from, but subject to, a ruling power
Columbian Exchange
the widespread exchange of agricultural goods, livestock, slave labor, communicable diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres that occurred after 1492.
Command economy
an economy that is planned and controlled by the central government
Communism
an economic and political system in which the government owns all the businesses, and citizens have limited personal freedoms
Concentration camps
prisons where civilians, political prisoners, and sometimes prisoners of war were held under harsh conditions
Confederation
voluntary associations of independent states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation (example: European Union); voluntary association of states in which individual states hold more power than the central government
Conquistador
a conqueror, especially one of the 16th century Spanish soldiers who defeated the Indian civilizations of Mexico, Central America, and Peru.
Constitution
document written to describe the way a government of a country will be organized
Commonwealth of Nations
weak association of member countries once part of the British Empire; also called the British Commonwealth
Communist
describes a government that owns or controls most farms and businesses
Confederation
voluntary associations of independent states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation (Example: European Union)
Conquistador
a conqueror from Spain, an explorer who went to new countries; a conqueror, especially one of the 16th century Spanish soldiers who defeated the Indian civilizations of Mexico, Central America and Peru
Constitution
document written to describe the way the government of a country will be organized; a document of basic laws that govern a country
Constitutional monarchy
a form of government in which the power of the king or queen is limited by a constitution
Consume
to buy, to use up, to purchase something that is for sale.
Contaminated
poisoned, food not safe to eat, a place not safe to live in; could make a person sick, even kill them
Cook, Captain James
claimed Australia for Great Britain; in 1770's had a ship named Endeavor
Coral Sea
a body of water off the east coast of Australia, home o the Great Barrier Reef
Cortez/Cortes
conquistador that Montezuma welcomed because he mistakenly thought Cortez was a god from a legend in their religion. Cortez was looking for gold and riches and was successful in overtaking the Aztec people.
Coup
a French word that means to take over a government, to militarily overthrow the present government (pronounced KOO with no "p" sound)
Coup d'etat
a military takeover of a government (pronounced KOO-DAY-TAH)
Crusades
wars fought in the Middle East over land that was holy to Christians and Muslims; military expeditions sent by different Popes (leaders of the Catholic Church) to capture the Holy Land
Cultural diffusion
the spread of language and traditions from one group to another
Culture
the way of life of a group of people; includes language, customs, traditions, beliefs, and religious practices
Currency
the type of money a country uses; a system of money
Currency exchange
without a system of exchanging currencies it would be very difficult to conduct international trade; exchange rates provide a procedure for determining the value of one country's currency in the terms of another country's currency.
Customs
rules of behavior that people follow within a culture
Cyrillic alphabet
an alphabet that is used by Slavic languages (includes Russian). These Slavic languages that use the Cyrillic alphabet are in central and eastern Europe.
Czars
another spelling of TSARS: what the king/emperor was called in Russia
Czechoslavakia
a country in Europe that doesn't exist any more
D-Day
the name given to the Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Western Europe; it occurred on June 6, 1944
Deciduous
trees that shed their leaves in the fall
Deficit
when a governing body spends more money than it brings in
Deforestation
the act or process of removing trees from or clearing a forest
Demand
how many people want the goods available and what they are willing to pay for them
Democracy / democratic
political system in which a country's people elect their leaders and rule by majority; a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections. (Examples: United Kingdom, Germany, Mexico, Brazil, Canada, Australia)
Denomination
a sect or group within a religion
Densely populated
a place where a lot of people live; for example, a city is densely populated, farmland in the country is not densely populated
Depression
buying and selling almost stops; wages fall; banks close; business slows; inflation rises; farmers lose land
Dictator
someone who rules by fear or force, they have all the power, they don't share power with anybody, has complete rule
Dictatorship
a form of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of one leader
Dissent
means to disagree with
Dissenter
a person who disagrees with (for example) the government or it's leader
Diversity
a variety of different races, ethnic backgrounds, religious beliefs
Domestic
describes industries or businesses that are in OUR country; foreign describes industries or businesses in countries other than our own
Dominant
the most powerful, the strongest, the most type of people
Dreaming
the time of creation in the Australian Aboriginal religion
Economic depression
buying and selling almost stops; wages fall; banks close; business slows; inflation rises; farmers lose land
Economic system
the way a country decides what goods will be produced, how they will be produced, and who will consume them
Economy
the way in which people m a erpson eet their needs through the production, distribution, and the use of goods and services
Elevation
how how a place is above sea level
Embargos
prohibit trade with other nations; they bar a foreign nation's imports or ban exports to that nation or both; a ban on trade with another country for a political reason
Emissions
the smoke that comes out smokestacks of factories, tailpipes of cars
Empire
a group of nations or people ruled over by a sovereign/monarch (emperor/ empress, king/queen, etc.)
England
used to be it's own country by itself; now part of Great Britain which is part of United Kingdom
English Channel
a body of water separating France and the United Kingdom
Entrepreneurs
one who risks his or her own money, time, ideas, and energy to start and run a business; a person who is willing to take a risk to organize and operate a new business
Ethnic
means having to do with race or culture
Ethnic group
people in a region who share ancestry, language, and culture
Euro
the currency of the European Union. One result of the EU is the creation of the EURO. Just as the United States has dollars ($), the European countries have their own currencies. The euro is the currency of most of the EU. Member countries can choose to give up their own currencies and exchange them for euros.
European Union (EU)
established in 1990s; main goal is to strengthen the economic, political, and defense ties of member nations; it's goal is to create a singles European currency; also it is a system to remove tariff barriers and open trade between countries. An organization, evolved from the European Economic Community, that created one economic market out of the member nations' economies
Exclusion zone
the area around Chernobyl, Ukraine where no one was allowed to live, travel, or "be' after the nuclear accident
Executive
branch of government that includes the head of state (president, premier, prime minister, etc)
Expedition
trip that's purpose is to explore
Export
a product that one country sells to another
Fascism
a totalitarian government that has complete control over its citizens' political, economic, religious, and cultural activities
Federal
1. national level, government having to do with the entire country, not just the state; 2. characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is divided between one central and several regional authorities. (Examples: Australia, Germany, Russia, Canada, Brazil, and Mexico)
Federal parliamentary democracy
a system in which a central government is controlled by a democratically elected Parliament, such as in Australia
Federal system
a system of government in which the national and state governments share power
Fifteenth century
the years from 1400 to 1499
Foreign
describes industries or businesses in countries other than our own; describes industries or businesses that are in OUR country
Fossil fuel
gasoline or other fuel made from oil deposits (from dead dinosaurs!)
Free enterprise system
another name is "market economy" or laissez-faire
Free trade
trade between nations without tariffs or other trade barriers
Free-trade zone
An arrangement between countries that creates a region where trade is conducted without tariffs or taxes on trade.
French and Indian War
the North American phase of a war between France and Britain to control colonial territory
Fuhrer
Hitler's title in German, meaning "leader"
Genoa
city in Italy
Genocide
the planned killing of a race of people; Hitler tried to do this with Jews in WWII
Germanic languages
the come from German languages; English is a Germanic language.
Glasnost
Russian term meaning "political openness"
Global warming
the gradual increase in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide and pollutants; climate change
Goods and services
things (products) people will buy or what people will pay others to do for them (haircut, doctor visit, lawn cutting)
Gorbachev, Mikhail
head of the Soviet Union
Government
the system a country uses to make laws and run the country
Governor
leader of the government of a territory or state
Great Barrier Reef
the world's largest coral reef, located off the coast of Queensland, Australia, in the Coral Sea
Great Britain
includes England, Scotland, Wales; each of these used to be individual countries
Great Depression
a global economic downturn that started in 1929 in the United States and soon spread into Europe. connected to US banks; wages fell; banks closed; business slowed; inflation rose, farmers lost land
Great Lakes
five lakes in central North America; the lakes are Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario
Great Victoria Desert
a desert in South and Western Australia named after British Queen Victoria
Great War
what World War I (World War One) used to be called
Gross domestic product (GDP)
the combined value of the goods and services produced in a country in each year; a total amount of goods and services produced in a country
Guerrilla
Spanish for "little war"; a person who engages in irregular warfare. GUER is base word for WAR in Spanish; member of a band of soldiers that harrass the enemy
Guerrilla warfare
small, mobile groups of nongovernment soldiers using tactics such as ambush, sabotage, spies, and deception to fight a larger government force such as an army or police force
Gulf Stream
moves warm water along the coast of North America, crosses the Atlantic and warms Ireland and western coasts of England
Hacienda
a ranch where farming and cattle ranching take place
Hajj
a pilgrimage by Muslims to Mecca
Holocaust
Hitler's systematic killing of every Jew (man, woman, and child) under Nazi rule; mass murder of Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, and dissenters by the Nazi's during World War II
House of Commons
part of Parliament in the United Kingdom; one of two governing bodies in the British Parliament; members are elected by the people
House of Lords
part of Parliament in the United Kingdom; one of two governing bodies in the British Parliament; members are appointed
Hudson Bay
an inlet in northeast Canada that is 850 miles long
Human capital
education and training; workers of a business or country including their education, training, skills, and health; labor; the value that most people bring to the marketplace
Hydroelectric power
electricity that is made from a force of moving water
Iberian Peninsula
southern European peninsula; home to Spain and Portugal
Illiteracy
the inability to read and write
Immigration
people coming to one country from another country, and moving there to live
Imperialism
a strategy by which a state tries to put other states under its political or economic control
Import
a product that one country buys from another
Import quota
a limit to the amount of a specific good that is imported
Inca
a group of people of highland Peru who established an empire from northern Ecuador to central Chile before the Spanish conquest
Income
money that comes from getting paid for doing work
Indigenous
the people who lived there before any explorers came from anywhere else
Industrial Revolution
the change from an economy based on farming and handmade goods to an economy based on factories and machines
Industrialized countries
countries that depend more on manufacturing than farming; generally have a higher standard of living
Inflation
when the prices of goods rise
Infrastructure
roads, bridges, airports, and other basic physical structures needed by a country
Interest
a charge that a bank pays to use deposited money; the return to the owner of real capital
International
between two or more countries
Inuit
a tribe of native people of Canada
Invest
to spend money in the hope of earning more than is spent
Islam
a monotheistic religion practiced by Muslims; fastest growing religion in Europe, holy book is the Koran (also spelled Quran); believers are called Muslims; made up of two groups, Sunnis and Shiites, believe Muhammed was last of prophets, believe in one God called ALLAH, trip to Mecca once in a lifetime, prayer five times a day, giving to charity, fasting during month of Ramadan
Judaism
a monotheistic religion practiced by Jewish people; oldest of three main religions in Europe, believers are called Jews/Jewish, holy book is Torah, Talmud written version of Oral Law, Abraham was founder/prophet, Jews in Europe were nearly wiped out by Hitler and Nazi Germany
Judicial, judiciary
refers to branch of government that has JUDGES and courts
Koran
holy book of the religion of Islam; also sometimes spelled Qu'ran
Laissez-faire
a decentralized market economy
Landform
a geographic or physical feature or a region
Landlocked
a country that is surrounded by land on all sides, no seas, oceans, bays, gulf, or coastline around any of it's borders
Left-wing
members of a liberal or radical party; favoring extensive reform
Legislature, legislative
refers to branch of government that makes the LAWS
Lenin, Vladimir
took control of Russia, became leader, renamed it Soviet Union
Literacy , literate
the ability to read and write
Literacy rate
what percentage of people in a country can read and write
Loyalists
colonists who remained loyal to the British during the American Revolution; many later settled in Canada
Luxuries
things that people want but do not need
Mainland
the principal landmass of a continent; part of a country that is on a continent, not an island
Manufacturing
the process of making goods and items with machines, usually in factories; making things so they can be sold; for example, factories are where manufacturing takes place (they make/assemble cars or other products... it's a "manufacturing plant")
Marine climate
a climate dominated by the ocean. Because of the moderating effect of water, sites having this climate are considered relatively mild.
Market economy
a person can start any legal business and charge any price; the production and distribution of goods owned by private individuals and or corporations; the people*not the government- own land, factories, and businesses; companies produce goods of their choice and consumers decide whether to buy the goods; competition is found in a market economy; an economy in which changes in price guide what and how goods and services will be produced, distributed, and consumed; a capitalistic economy
Maya
a member of the Mesoamerican Indian people inhabiting southeast Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize
Mediterranean climate
climate having sunny, hot, dry, summers and rainy winters
Mediterranean Sea
sea found south of Europe, but north of Africa; large body of water that separates Europe from Africa
Mesoamerica
middle America, central America
Messiah
a savior
Mestizo
a person of mixed Native American and Spanish (or Portuguese) ancestry; from the Spanish word for "mixed"
Milan
a major city in Italy; famous for fashion
Militarism
using strong armies and threats of war
Mixed economies
an economic system that allows for the simultaneous operation of publicly and privately owned enterprises; mixture of pure market and pure command; a combination of privately-owned industry and government control
Monarch
a king or queen, emperor or empress, czar or czarina; usually get their "job" by inheriting it because of their birth
Monarchy
a government led by a king or queen; territory ruled by a king or queen who has total power to govern
Monotheism
a belief in one God
Monotheistic
a religion that believes in one god
Montezuma / Moctezuma
leader of the Aztec people, their "king"; allowed Cortes to come into their city, welcomed him at first because he thought he was a god... until he figured out that Cortes was really a greedy conquistador, but by then it was too late.
Mulatto
a person of mixed African and European ancestry
Muslim
(sometimes spelled Moslem) one of the 3 main religions in Europe, Muslims believe in the religion called Islam
Nahuatl
modern version of the Aztec language
Naples
a major city in Italy
Nationalism
the love of one's country; extreme loyalty and devotion to a nation
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
an alliance of the United States, Canada, and its western European allies; formed after World War II
Natural gas
found in the ground, along with oil
Natural resources
"gifts" of nature, including forests, fertile soil, water; a material source of wealth, such as timber, fresh water, or a mineral deposit, that occurs in a natural state and has economic value
Naval
military sea power, battleships on the oceans, etc.
Nazi
a shortened name for National Socialist German Workers' Party; the political party of Adolf Hitler
Nazi Party
another name for National Socialist party, Adolf Hitler's beliefs
Nazism
beliefs of the Nazi Party; Germans felt betrayed by Treaty of Versailles; Nazis came to power; Hitler promised to break Treaty of Versailles, rebuild the military, and reclaim lost territory
Nonrenewable resource
a resource that cannot be replaced by nature; for example, oil is a nonrenewable resource
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
an arrangement signed in 1993 that allows free trade among the United States, Canada, and Mexico
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
an organization formed in 1949 in Washington, D.C., made up of the countries of the Atlantic Pact and others, for the purpose of collective defense against aggression
Northern hemisphere
all of the earth that is north of the equator
Nuclear
same type of energy that comes from the sun, only it's man made
Observatory
a place or building equipped for making observations of astronomical or meteorological objects or events; especially one equipped with a powerful telescope for observing stars and planets
Oligarchic government
a form of government in which a small, unelected group controls the country and denies power to citizens
Oligarchy
government by the few, sometimes a government in which a small group exercises control especially for corrupt and selfish purposes. The citizen has a very limited role. A small group exercises control. Communist countries are mostly oligarchies. The citizen has a very limited role in government.
Opportunity cost
refers to the difference in the amount of time and effort to make one thing instead of another
Organization of American States (OAS)
an international organization formed in 1948; promotes economic, military, and cultural cooperation among its members; which include almost all the independent states of the Western Hemisphere
Ottoman Empire
Austria-Hungary, Turkey and it's colonies
Outback
a large desert of the Australian mainland
Pacific Theater
a term used during World war II to refer to areas of the Pacific Ocean where the fighting occurred
Panama Canal
a human-made waterway connecting the Pacific Ocean to the Caribbean Sea
Paramilitary forces
not a regular, usual, official military force
Parliament
the legislature in which elected representatives choose a country's leader from members of the political party with the most votes
Parliamentary system
form of democratic government in which prime minister is head of legislature; used in the United Kingdom and many other countries; type of democratic government where citizens elect MPs who choose a prime minister as chief executive; a system of government having the real executive power vested in a cabinet composed of members of the legislature who are individually and collectively responsible to the legislature. May have a Prime Minister elected by the legislature. (Example: United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Germany)
Penal
describes a prison
Penal colony
colony where prisoners are sent
Penal system
system of prisons and jails
Peninsula
a piece of land nearly surrounded by water but connected to a larger land body; part of the land that sticks out into the water, being surrounded by water on three sides
Per capital income
the total national income divided by the number of people in the nation
Perestroika
a Russian word that means "social restructuring", used by Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union
Permafrost
ground that never thaws; obviously wouldn't be able to be farmland
Personal freedoms
the right to vote, the right to have free speech, choice of religion, etc.
Peso
the Mexican or Cuban currency
Petroleum
an oily liquid used as gasoline or for other products
Phosphorus
a chemical used in fertilizer, pesticides, toothpaste, detergents, and explosives that can pollute water
Physical capital
factories, machines, technologies, buildings and property needed by businesses to operate
Physical capital investment
purchasing physical capital
Pizarro, Francisco
was a Spanish conquistador, conqueror of the Incan Empire, and founder of Lima, the modern-day capital of the Republic of Peru. He was responsible for capturing Atahualpa, leading to the downfall of the Incan empire in Latin America.
Political party
an organized group of people who hold a particular set of political beliefs
Pope
leader of the Roman Catholic Church
Population distribution
how the people of a country are spread out across the land. For example, cities (urban areas) have a high population; country/farmland (rural areas) have a lower population, desert areas and frozen lands have a lower population
Population density
describes how many people live in a certain unit (square mile, for example); tells information about population distribution (see above definition)
port
a city that is by an ocean, river, bay, or other body of water, that allows ships to come to/from the city for trade and transporation
Pound (British)
the currency used in the United Kingdom
Precipitation
any form of rain, snow, or water falling from the sky
President
head of the executive branch of government in the United States
Presidential system
a form of government in which the executive branch of the national government is headed by the president, while the legislative branch is headed by Congress; used in the United States; type of democratic government where citizens elect members of the legislature and also the chief executive, known as the president; a system of government in which the president is constitutionally independent of the legislature (Example: Mexico and Brazil)
Prime minister
the chief or leading member of a parliamentary government; the head of state in a parliamentary system of democracy, responsible for running the day to day operations of government; the head of the government in Canada and United Kingdom
Prince Henry the Navigator
Son of the king of Portugal, he wanted to send ships south to Africa because he wanted a route around Africa to the Asian markets. He also wanted to spread Christianity.
Profit
money left after business expenses are subtracted from business income
Province
an individual state in Canada with a local government; similar to states in America
Quebecois
a person who lives in Quebec and does not consider himself Canadian
Quechua
the Inca language
Qu'ran
holy book of the religion of Islam; also sometimes spelled Koran
Quota
(1) in a centralized command economy, being told by government what and how much to produce in a certain time; (2) a limit placed on the number of imports that may enter a country. Put a legal limit on the amount that can be imported, creating shortages which cause prices to rise. A quota benefits domestic producers in the same way a tariff does, but the additional money expended on foreign goods goes to the foreign producers, not the domestic government. PLACES LIMITS ON NUMBER OF IMPORTS that may enter a country.
Radiation
energy (can come from the sun or nuclear material) can be used to power things, but too much can be dangerous to human health
Radioactive materials
things that have been exposed to radiation, like when the nuclear plant explosion at Chernobyl, Ukraine in 1986
Raw materials
unprocessed, natural products used in manufacturing
Real
Brazilian currency
Real investment
the purchase of a new home by a person or the purchase of physical capital by a business
Renewable resource
those that can be replaced by nature; for example, trees are a renewable resource; when used, it can be regrown, or more of it can be made. For example, lumber (wood) is a renewable resources because we can grow more trees. Oil is NOT a renewable resource because once it is used up, more cannot be made or grown.
Reparations
payments for war damages; often made by a defeated power to the winning side
Representative democracy
a form of government in which the citizens elect representatives to act on their behalf; a democratic form of government in which the citizens elect representatives to make government decisions
Reunification
to bring two parts back together that had gotten separated in the past; when East Germany and West Germany were brought back together and once again made into one country
Revolution
overthrow a government, replace a government, usually violent
Rhine
river in Germany; most important commercial waterway in Europe
Rivals
persons, sports teams, countries that compete against each other
Roaring Twenties
years 1920-1929 when people felt good about the economy
Role of citizen
whether or not the citizen can vote, or has the right of free speech to express their opinions to their government
Rome
city in present day Italy; used to be the center of a huge empire
Roman Catholic
some of the first Christians, their leader is the pope, their church is headquartered in The Vatican, which is located inside Rome, Italy.
Romance languages
derived from Latin (the language of the Roman Empire), includes Latin , Italian, French
Rubles
the Russian currency
Russian Revolution
(1917) two part revolt that resulted in the overthrow of the czar and the Communist take-over of Russia; transformed Russia from autocracy into the Soviet Union; Czar Nicholas removed from power, his family and other members of ruling class were killed; Bolshevik party and peasants led by Lenin formed Communist government and took control of farming and industry; farms were taken over by the government
sabotage
to on purpose ruin something or make it break
Sahara Desert
the world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa
Santeria
a Cuban religion based on African traditional beliefs
Savings
income not spent
Scandinavian Peninsula
a peninsula lying north of the mainland of Europe; includes Norway, Sweden, and Finland
Scapegoat
an individual or group that is unfairly blamed by others for previously existing problems
Scarcity
limited supply of something
Scotland
northern part of the island of Great Britain
Scramble for Africa
the division of much of Africa among European countries between 1885 and 1910
Secede
to withdraw formally from membership in an organization, association, or alliance
Separatist
a person who wants Quebec to be an independent country from Canada
Service jobs
jobs that involve providing services to people rather than products
Siberia
northern area of Russia; very cold (low temps 40 below zero), snowy (3 to 4 feet), icy; much of it has ground that is frozen all year
Sicily
island off the southern coast of mainland Italy; part of the country of Italy
Sierra Madre Mountains
a Mexican mountain range running along either side of the Mexican Plateau
Skilled labor
workers who have training, education, or experience to do a certain job. Examples: engineers, computer technicians, mechanics.
Slag
leftover rock from the smelting process
Slavic languages
Russian is the most widely spoken Slavic language, uses a Cyrillic alphabet
Smog
word that came from mixture of fog and smoke
Smokeless zones
areas of London where, in order to improve air quality, only smokeless fuels can be used
Solidarity
a labor union in Poland in the 1980's
Southern hemisphere
all of the earth that is south of the equator
Soviet Union
a powerful communist country that supported the Castro movement in Cuba
Spans
spreads across
Specialization
when a country uses its resources and skills to produce goods efficiently; encourages trade between countries; the division of labor; work is divided into parts for workers, factories, or countries to become expert at producing certain goods
St. Lawrence Seaway
a canal system that provides a passageway for ships to travel between the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean
Standard of living
Regarding people in a country or part of the world: includes the homes they live in, what type of nutrition and medical care they receive, the availability and level of education
State Duma
the elected body of Russia's Federal Assembly; controls the budget and makes laws; approves prime minister selected by the president
Stock market crash
occurs when the value of stocks falls quickly and deeply; the values of stocks (shares of ownership) people held in companies began a steep and quick drop.
Subsidies
a grant or contribution of money, especially one made by a government in support of an undertaking or the upkeep of a thing
Superpower
a country that is far more powerful than other countries
Supply
the amount of goods available
Symbol
something used to represent something else, often something immaterial, often and emblem, token, or sign
Syndrome
pattern of symptoms that together are characteristic of a specific medical disorder
Tariffs
another word for tax; the purpose of a tariff, such as a protective tariff, is to increase the prices of imported goods and protect a country's own industries from foreign competition; taxes on imports, raise the price of imported goods, which increases the demand and price for the same goods produced by domestic suppliers. Revenues from tariffs are collected by the domestic government.
Tax
another word for tariff
Tenochtitlan
a main city of the Aztec Empire
Territory
an area similar to a Canadian province but with less local government; controlled by the Canadian government
Thames
the river that flows through England (London)
Third Reich
the name for the German Empire that Adolf Hitler was building during World War II
Third world countries
developing nations that do not have much industry and that depend on farming; have lower standard of living than industrialized countries
Thyroid
gland located in human, having to do with the body's metabolism
Torah
the first five books of the Old Testament
Toxic
poisonous
Trade
to encourage in the exchange, purchase, or sale of goods; voluntary exchange of goods and services among people and countries benefitting both parties
Trade barrier
an economic or physical limit to what can be traded with a country; ways of limiting trade by tariffs, quotas, or embargoes; limit world trade, diminish economic efficiency, reduce total production and employment, raise prices, and encourage retaliation. They benefit some domestic companies and their workers at the expense of foreign companies and workers, and domestic consumers.
Traditional economy
an economy dominated by methods and techniques that have strong social support even though they may be out of date; economy in which customs and habits of the past decide what and how goods and services are produced, distributed, and consumed
Transport
to move by using trucks, ships, planes, etc.
Treaty
a written agreement that is written and signed to signify the end of a war
Treaty of Versailles
(1919) an agreement that officially ended World War I; it required that Germany accept full responsibility for the war; explained what the winners of the war would gain and what the losers would lose; punished Germany for the war, stripped Germany of power, land, and military; Germany had to pay Allies for war; the U.S. refused to sign the treaty
Tsars
another spelling of the word CZARS; what the king/emperor was called in Russia
Tundra
a plain found in arctic and subarctic regions that has permanently frozen subsoil and is treeless
Turbines
fan blades that are turned by some type of energy which in turn produces a useful power . For example water from the river, as it flows through the dam, turns the turbine and makes electricity.
Turin
a major city in Italy
Twentieth century
years from 1900-1999
Ukraine
used to be a part of the USSR (Soviet Union), now a country
Unicameral
one house; refers to type of legislative branch of government
Unitary government
a form of government in which the central government decides which powers to grand to local governments; a form of government in which a central government operates all levels of government in a country; characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is held by one central authority (Examples: Cuba and United Kingdom)
Unskilled labor
workers who don't have training or education
Urban
referring to city
Urban area
city area (as compared to the country and farmland)
USSR
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; often just shortened to "Soviet Union". This country does not exist anymore. It has now been broken up into several different countries.
Vasco de Gama
a Portuguese explorer
Vast
huge, large, tremendous
Venice
city in Italy, water canals instead of streets/roads
Versailles
a royal castle (a grand palace) in France, a place in France near Paris
Viceroy
Spanish governor of conquered American lands
Volga River
river in Asia/Eastern Europe
Voluntary
to do something because you want to, not because someone is making you
Wales
used to be country by itself, now part of Great Britain which is part of United Kingdom
Welfare state
government that guarantees certain benefits to the unemployed, poor, disabled, old, and sick, such as is done in the Basic Law of Germany
Wilhelm II
German emperor
World War I
European conflict from 1914 to 1918; also known as the Great War and "the war to end all wars"
World War II
worldwide conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945
Worldwide Depression
connected to US banks; wages fell; banks closed; business slowed; inflation rose, farmers lost land
Workforce
the people in a country or society who hold jobs or are able to hold jobs
Zapatistas
a rebel group in southern Mexico which fought in the 1900's on behalf of poor farmers; a guerilla group who supported improved living conditions for indigenous Mexicans; they have resorted to harassment, sabotage, and forcible takeovers of local governments