NASM Exam Questions

What is an example of a mechanism that can lead to muscle imbalance?
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 278
Terms in this set (278)
amotivationdescribes when someone is not motivated enough to engage in an activity or behaviorambivalencehappens when someone has mixed feelings about a can diastolic blood pressure be defined?the pressure in arteries and other blood vessels when the heart is at rest or between bets. the second (bottom) number recordedcalf raise strengthens...?gastrocnemius and soleusWhen a Certified Personal Trainer wants to enhance a client's self-efficacy by breaking down exercises or goals into easier-to-achieve tasks, what behavior change technique are they usingset specific tasksWhat type of health concern is the leading cause of death in the world today?chronic diseases and conditionsneurotransmitterterm for the chemical messengers that cross the synapse between the neuron and muscle and assist with nerve transmission?Hypothalamusendocrine gland serves as a communication channel between the brain and pituitary glandhypertensionconsistently elevated blood pressureDuring a squat, which muscle group isometrically contracts to prevent unnecessary thigh movement in the frontal plane?hip abductorsAt her annual physical, Claire found out her blood pressure was 110/70 mm Hg. According to this information, which statement is trueher diastolic pressure is 70When compared to machines, free weights provide which of the following benefits to users?Increased multiplanar movementWhat is a physical benefit of resistance training?Increased muscular hypertrophyThe water-soluble vitamins include which vitamins?Vitamin C and the B complex vitaminsWhich of the following is the most effective type of exercise to increase proprioceptive demands in trainingExercises with free weightsVitamin and mineral supplements are which kind of supplementsHealth supplementsWhich of the following is the best source for reviewing information about dietary supplements?PubMedImproved performance during a plyometric jump is dependent upon which of the following?Rapid amortization phaseIn what plane of movement do shoulder horizontal adduction and abduction occur?transverseWhich of the following is an example of a client's intrinsic motivation for exercise?Exercising because it is funExtrinsic motivationWhen someone participates in an activity or behavior for some type of reward or recognition from othersintrinsic motivationWhen people engage in an activity or behavior because they feel a sense of satisfactionWhat is the recommended frequency for cardiorespiratory training if participating in moderate-intensity exercise like brisk walking?5 times a weekWhich muscle would be considered underactive, leading to shoulder elevation during the pulling assessment?Lower trapeziusWhat is the correct order of the Stages of Change?Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenanceWhat is shortest time period per day that balance training should be conducted 3 times per week for 4 weeks in order to improve both static and dynamic balance ability in children?10 minutesWhat parameter of Muscular Development Training would be most associated with this style of training?growth and volumeWhich skinfold sites are measured if determining body composition via the Durnin-Womersley protocol?Biceps, triceps, subscapular, and suprailiacExcess postexercise oxygen consumptionhigher-than-normal energy expenditure during the recovery period after exerciseWhich of the following statements most accurately reflects ventilatory threshold one (VT1)?An intensity where continuous talking becomes challengingWhich type of muscle fiber has a large number of capillaries?type ITo increase the metabolic demand of SAQ exercises among weight-loss clients, which of the following adjustments to a workout session could be implemented?decreased rest periodsWhich of the following is an example of an exercise modality to enrich the proprioceptive nature of an exercisewobble boardWhat are the five kinetic chain checkpoints?Feet, knees, hips, shoulders, headWhat is defined as an individual's level of effort, compared with their maximal effort, which is usually expressed as a percentage?training intensityPlanned exercise alone is typically insufficient for acutely lowering and controlling hypertension.Identify a movement limitation for an individual who walks or runs on a treadmill if he or she presents with an anterior pelvic tiltLimitations to hip extension may require hyperextension in the low-back, placing increased stress on the low-back.scoliosisAltered bone shape through the spineWhat are the three movements performed during the ball combo I exercise?Scaption, shoulder abduction, and cobraWhat is the primary goal of repeating flexibility training during a cool-down?Restore optimal length-tension relationshipsWhich is a primary adaptation of the Power Training phase?rate of force productionAn obese client who has been diagnosed with peripheral artery disease (PAD) should be advised to do which of the following?Strive for 20 to 30 minutes of continuous aerobic exercise daily.Which postural distortion is characterized by flat feet, knee valgus, and adducted and internally rotated hipsPes planus distortion syndromebarbell bench presscommon strength focused resistance training exerciseWhat is acidosis in muscleA decrease in pH, which can lead to feelings of fatigueIn what phase of plyometric exercise does preloading or stretching of the agonist muscle occureccentricWhich of the following waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs) places Amy (a female) in the high-risk category for cardiovascular diseaseWHR of 0.88Which term best describes observable movement of the limbs?osteokinematicsExtreme dietary restrictions may increase risk for what?vitamin and mineral defienciesProper abdominal crunches on a stability ball allows for:Increased spinal extension due to the curvature of the ballWhat are the current physical activity recommendations for youth?60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per dayWhich governmental agency regulates dietary supplements in Australia?Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA)Reactive training is another common name for which type of exercise?plyometric trainingWhich of the following workout stages can include steady-state exercise?stage 2What step height is used for the YMCA 3-minute step test?12 inchesWhat is the peripheral heart action system?A variation of circuit training that alternates upper body and lower body exercises throughout the circuitWhat stage of change is a person in if they have been exercising but for less than 6 months?actionvitamin d is most important for whatbone healthWhat is defined as the ability to react and change body position with maximal force production, in all planes of motion, and from all body positions?quicknessWhich type of assessment assesses the alignment of the body while in motion?Dynamic posture assessmentWhat does the electron transport chain (ETC) do?The ETC uses a hydrogen gradient to create ATP.What is the ability to move the body in one direction as fast as possiblespeedThe development of muscular endurance of the legs requires light weights and high repetitions when performing leg-related exercises. What is this an example of?mechanical specificityWhat term is used to describe combined muscle contraction (co-contraction) of the global muscles of the core?bracingWhat is the Tanaka formula, which is used to estimate an individual's maximal heart rate?208 - (0.7 x age)What is defined as steady-state exercise?Aerobic exercise performed at a constant intensityWhat should be the first step in a client's program after the assessment?Designing the flexibility portion of the programWhat plyometric term relates to a rapid eccentric motion followed by an explosive concentric motion?Stretch-shortening cycleSAQ programs for youth have been found to decrease whatAthletic injuriesWhat condition is characterized by the narrowing of coronary arteriesIschemic heart diseaseAn important aspect of an established exercise group includes which of the following?The group feels distinct from other people.Rotational movement of the torso should primarily occur where?Thoracic spineThe hip hinge is an important fundamental movement. During a hip hinge, what movements are occurring?Flexion and extensionHow is an isokinetic muscle contraction best describedA contraction that occurs when the speed of movement is fixed and the resistance varies with the force exertedWhat statement best describes the category of simple sugars?Single- or double-molecule sugars that are easily absorbed by the bodyWhat are the two categories of bone markings?Depressions and processesWhich of the following is the best example of a complete protein source?Dairy foodsWhat concern should you have when prescribing flexibility exercises to a client with osteoporosis?Osteoporosis is considered a contraindication to myofascial rolling.A client performs a heavy squat exercise followed by a set of squat jumps. What type of resistance training system is being used?Complex trainingWhat is another term for the annual training plan that outlines the entire year's worth of programming?MacrocycleWhat is end-diastolic volume?The amount of blood in the ventricle before contractionWhich factor will be reduced through training/exercising with correct posture?Muscle imbalancesWhich of the following is the functional unit of a muscle cell?A sarcomereWhich of the following hormones, if increased at baseline, may be indicative of overtraining?CortisolWhat is a joint disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissue, causing an inflammatory response?Rheumatoid arthritisWhat is bioenergetics?The study of the ways in which food is turned into energyWhat types of foods contain carbohydrates?Plant foods and dairyWhich muscles are typically underactive when the feet turn out?Anterior and posterior tibialisReceptors involved with this sense are specifically responsible for determining foot position while standing on an unstable surfaceSomatosensationeccentric muscle actiona muscle action that occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengtheningphases of movementlengthening of muscle, moves to isometric stabilization, then concentric accelerationmotor unita motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers that it innervatesconcentric muscle actiona muscle action that occurs when a muscle is exerting force greater than the resistive force, resulting in a shortening of the muscleisometric muscle actionwhen a muscle is exerting force to equal to the force being placed on it leading to no visible change in the muscle lengthcoreThe structures that make up the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (LPHC), including the lumbar spine, pelvic girdle, abdomen, and hip jointAtherosclerosisthe processes by which plaque is formed in arteries leading to reduced blood flowsystolic blood pressurethe pressure in arteries and other blood vessels when the heart is contracting, the first or top number recordedLDL cholesterolbad. low density lipoprotein. low protein, high fa. clogs arteriesHDL cholesterolgood. high density lipoprotein. high protein, low fatglucoseThe simplest form of carbohydrate used by the body for energy.insulin resistancethe inability of the cells to respond to insulin, occurs in type 2 diabetesdiabetesChronic metabolic disorder, caused by insulin deficiency, which impairs carbohydrate usage and enhances usage of fat and proteinendorphinsA group of hormones secreted by the brain that provides a variety of physiological functions, such as reducing the perception of painHigh-intensity interval training HIITAn exercise training method defined by intervals of near-maximal intensity broken up by relatively short rest periods.adherenceThe level of commitment to a behavior or plan of action.aerobicprocesses relating to, involving, or requiring oxygendeaminationthe breakdown of amino acids into substrates that can be used for energy metabolismAutonomic nervous systemsystem supplies neural input to organs that run the involuntary processes of the body?What are the five kinetic chain checkpoints?Feet and ankles, knees, LPHC, shoulders, and head and neckFor an individual training in stage 1, what training volume and frequency would qualify that person to progress to stage 2?Ability to maintain zone 1 intensity for at least 30 minutes, 3 times per weekWhich muscle functions in a feed-forward mechanism in anticipation of limb movements?MultifidusWhat is the recommended recovery time between bouts of plyometric training for novice clients?48 to 72 hoursWhat is the dysfunction that occurs due to narrowing and rubbing of the soft tissue and bony structures of the shoulderShoulder impingementWhy is it important for fitness professionals to pay attention to their personal grooming when working in a fitness facility?Personal trainers are professionals. Having a professional appearance can help ensure that clients treat personal trainers as the professionals they are.Which regions of the spine demonstrate lordotic curves?Cervical and lumbarSusan's quadriceps have been identified as overactive. What type of flexibility training should be used first to help improve this muscle imbalance?SMR and static stretching of the quadricepsWhat is the purpose of the intervertebral discs?They act as shock absorbers.Which nutrient has the highest thermic effect?ProteinAgilityis characterized by the ability to start, stop, and change direction in response to a signal or stimulus quickly while maintaining postural controlWhat is the complete transition from eccentric to concentric muscle actions known as?Stretch-shortening cycleWhat breathing change occurs at the second ventilatory threshold (VT2)?Expiration becomes more forceful.What is the correct order of segments for the spine, starting at the top?Cervical, thoracic, and lumbarWhich type of scoliosis is influenced by improper muscle balance?Functional (nonstructural) scoliosisWhich of the following statements regarding true Tabata training is considered accurate?The total duration of the workout is 4 minutes long and performed at 170% of VO2max.Which of the following would be the recommended stability ball size for someone under 5 feet tall?45 cmWhat is Bernadette's waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) if she is measured with a waist circumference of 28 inches and a hip circumference of 33 inches?0.85What advice would enable a client to breathe properly?Sit upright and slowly breathe in through your nose while allowing your stomach to expand.Which of the following compensations is most likely considered a predictive factor for developing a knee injury?Knee valgusWhat are the three categories within the lipid family?Triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterolsWhat does the eccentric phase of a plyometric movement accomplish?DecelerationWhich synergist would assist the upper-body pectoral muscles to enhance chest stabilization, strength, or power?Triceps brachiihat is the most accurate description of motor control?The ability to initiate and correct purposeful controlled movementsAccording to the "iceberg effect," which of the following training adaptations are considered "surface level"?EnduranceWhich of the following would be a helpful and sustainable strategy for achieving a moderate calorie deficit for fat loss?Replacing high-calorie foods with leaner substitutesHow much rest should be given between each repetition of an SAQ exercise for young athletes?15 to 60 secondsHow far down should a client squat during the barbell squat exercise?As far as can be controlled without compensatingWhat training tip would enhance the benefits of resistance training by helping increase growth hormone, testosterone, and epinephrine?Slowing down the speed of contractions during the eccentric and concentric phasesThe impact that family members, peers, or coworkers have over someone's decision to exercise describes which of the following terms?Group influenceRegarding free-weight training, which of the following is the most accurate statement?Free weights may improve dynamic joint stabilization and proprioception.What is defined as the number of foot contacts, throws, or catches occurring during a plyometric exercise session?VolumeWhat is an appropriate cue that can be given to a client to properly perform the drawing-in maneuver?To perform the drawing-in maneuver, pull in the region just below the navel toward the spine.Which leadership component refers to the leader being a great example for how to live a healthy and balanced life, which includes being optimistic, empathetic, and knowledgeable?Leader's qualitiesWhat are the three branched chain amino acids (BCAAs)?Valine, leucine, and isoleucineContraction of the erector spinae and hip flexor muscles creates what motion of the pelvis in the sagittal plane?Anterior pelvic tiltWhich of the following would not be an example of core musculature to stabilize the trunk and pelvis?Pectoral groupWhat type of communication includes posture, hand gestures, proximity to others, and facial expressions?Nonverbal communicationWhich of the following is true about the biologically active forms of vitamins?Biologically active forms are most effective for augmenting body levels.Which ADL would be most likely to involve the hip hinge?CleaningFor which movement impairment would you see the shoulders moving upward toward the ears?Shoulder elevationWhat phase of the OPT model aims to increase growth of muscles to maximal levels?Muscular DevelopmentIn which BMI category would you classify Vincent if he has a BMI of 27?OverweightFor someone training in the Muscular Development phase, which of the following changes would be optimal?Body fat lossWhich scenario best demonstrates companionship support?Coordinating group events that are centered around physical activitiesWhich of the following is considered one of the Four Horsemen of Fitness?Medicine ballWhat key term would best describe an overactive hip flexor complex decreasing neural drive to the hip extensor complexAltered reciprocal inhibitionWhich term best describes the ability to contract muscles of the core with force in an effort to flex the trunk during a slow controlled movement?Core strengthAsking a client to turn their head side to side during a balance exercise would challenge which system?Vestibular systemWhen a client makes a plan, such as, "When I am done with work, I will run for 30 minutes," what are they doing?Forming an implementation intentionThe drawing-in maneuver increases activation of what muscle?Transverse abdominisWhich of the following tests is used to measure lower-extremity power?Vertical jumpWhich of these exercises targets the triceps musculature?Close grip bench pressWhat is the principle of specificity?A principle stating that the body will adapt to the specific demands that are placed on itWhat ideally should follow a day of high-intensity training in stage 3?A stage 1 day (recovery day) should follow a hard stage 3 training day.What area of the chest contains the heart?MediastinumWhich of the following is characterized as a local muscle of the core?Transverse abdominisWhere is it most common to take an individual's circumference measurement to assess health risk?WaistWhich of the following is an example of an exercise that targets the global muscles of the core?Back extensionIn what training zone would you be exercising at a vigorous to very hard intensity, where talking is limited to infrequent, short phrases?Zone 3Where is the appropriate location to take a waist circumference measurement?At the narrowest point of the waist, below the rib cage and just above the top of the hip bones (while standing)Which of the following would occur during intermittent exercise?All three energy systems would be used at some point during the activity.Stored energy from an efficiently functioning stretch-shortening cycle is released during which muscle action?ConcentricIf someone went out for a 5-mile jog with their friend, which energy system would provide most of the ATP for this activity?Oxidative phosphorylationWhat is the function of the neuromuscular junction?The site where the nervous system and muscle fibers communicatePosture of the spine is primarily controlled by which muscles of the core?Local musclesThe posterior oblique system includes which of the following muscle groups?Thoracolumbar fascia and contralateral gluteus maximusWhich of the following options is not a benefit to all people who use balance training in their programmingDecreased agility-based outcomes in athletesMost bodyweight training exercises are considered which type of movements?Closed-chain movementsWhich of the following statements is considered to be most accurate?An individual's cardiorespiratory fitness level is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality.Speed is the product of what two variables?Stride rate and stride lengthThe human body is uniquely designed to respond to stress and, if necessary, make changes to maintain optimal health and physiological functioning. What is this process called?HomeostasisWhat best describes an essential amino acid?An amino acid that must be obtained via diet, as it is not produced by the bodyWithout a perceived discrepancy between a client's current state and making a change, what is lacking?MotivationWhen performing high-velocity movements with medicine balls, the ball weight should be no more than what percentage of the user's body weight, according to current recommendations?0.1If the concentric phase of a plyometric exercise doesn't use all the stored elastic energy from the eccentric phase, what occurs?The unused energy is dissipated as heat.What weekly progression rate in exercise volume is the maximum recommended for cardiorespiratory training?10% per weekWhat term is defined as the generic modifiable factors that impact behavior?DeterminantsWhat mechanism is responsible for increasing the rate of heart conduction?Activation of the sympathetic nervous systemWhat are the two primary actions of the Golgi tendon organ?Sense change in muscle-tendon tension and speed of tension changeWhich joint has the simplest movement, moving either back and forth or side to side?NonaxialWhich of the following is considered an "under the water" foundational adaptation, per the "iceberg effect"?StabilityA client is performing a push-up exercise with a 4-3-2-1 repetition tempo. For how many seconds is the eccentric muscle action performed?4 secondsA client has been journaling their behavior. They find that if they get home and sit on the couch to watch television, they do not end up exercising. But if they bring their gym clothes to work with them and change before leaving the office, they are more likely to exercise. Which behavior change technique are they using?Self-monitoringWhat type of muscle action would expend the highest amount of energy at a fixed resistance level over a comparable duration?ConcentricWhich phase of the OPT model introduces lifting near or at maximal intensity?Phase 4Which principle states that soft tissue will model along the lines of stress?Davis's lawThe PAR-Q+ and preparticipation process reflects what three health indicators?An individual's current level of physical activity, the presence of signs and symptoms of disease, and the individual's desired exercise intensityWhich of the following force couples is accurately linked to the movement created by their combined action?Internal and external obliques functioning to create trunk rotationPerforming a biceps curl with a dumbbell in the hand is an example of which type of lever?Third classWhat does BMI (body mass index) assess for?Whether a person's weight is appropriate for their heightStage 3 balance exercise should include what types of motion?Hopping motions with a single-leg stance landingWhich type of support describes the actions that a person takes to help another person engage in exercise?Instrumental supportWhich of the following exercises would be most likely to contribute to an acute increase in testosterone levels?Back squatProprioception is best described as which of the following statements?The body's ability to sense body position and limb movementsWhen performing a floor bridge exercise, why should you not raise the hips too far off the floor?It may place excessive stress on the lumbar spine through hyperextension.What type of input may provide a runner with a cue to contract the evertor muscles to avoid an inversion injury?ProprioceptionWhat is excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)?EPOC is the increase in aerobic metabolism above baseline that occurs for a period after exercise.You are working with an intermediate client on SAQ drills. From the choices provided, what would be the best choice for drills per session?6 to 8 drillsWhat is the correct order of fascia, starting with the most superficial?Epimysium, perimysium, endomysiumWhat is the primary function of the local muscles of the core?Stabilize vertebral segmentsFlexibility training can reduce the risk of what three conditions?Muscle imbalances, joint dysfunctions, and overuse injuriesWhich vitamin is the most transient?Vitamin CWhat is the best type of plyometric exercise for a beginner client?Small jumpsWhich of the following exercises provides the most challenge for the antirotational stabilizing muscles?Kettlebell RDLWhich of the following statements pertaining to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is incorrect?Measuring intensity by one's "effort" (a subjective measure) is an accurate measure of intensity.What best describes triple flexion when referring to frontside mechanics?Ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion of the lead legWhat are the end products of the electron transport chain?ATP and waterIn which BMI category would you classify Mary if she has a BMI of 17.5?UnderweightWhich muscle would be considered overactive, leading to arms falling forward during the overhead squat assessment?Latissimus dorsiWhich heart chamber receives deoxygenated blood and pumps it to the lungs?Right ventricleWhich of the following does plyometric training help increase?Motor unit recruitmentHow many repetitions of each SAQ drill is appropriate for youth athletes?3 to 5 repsExtension of the shoulder is common in many pulling movements. Which of the following muscles is involved?Latissimus dorsiWhich component of blood is primarily responsible for transporting oxygenated blood throughout the body?Red blood cellsThe body can adapt to new demands while becoming stronger and more resilient through which exercise programming approach?Progressive overloadMost exercises and motions of the body regularly occur in which plane of motion?SagittalWhich of the following would make a person better at oxidizing fat?Having more mitochondria in their muscleWhich system puts the body into a relaxed state, termed rest and digest?Parasympathetic nervous systemWhich of the following examples of training exercises is not a form of cardiorespiratory fitness?Resistance trainingHow is a general warm-up best defined?Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that do not necessarily relate to the more intense exercise immediately following.Which of the following is considered a superficial muscle of the core?Erector spinaeBefore carbohydrates, fat, or protein can enter the citric acid cycle (CAC), they need to be converted to what common molecule?Acetyl CoAA Certified Personal Trainer wants to improve a client's outcome expectations for resistance training. What behavior change technique might they use?Providing information on the health benefitsWhich type of nerve receptor senses pain?NociceptorWhich muscles may be overactive with knee valgus during the overhead squat?Tensor fascia latae and adductor complexWhen it comes to barriers to exercise, which statement is correct?Barriers to exercise are often cited by people who are sedentary or infrequently active.Which of the following is considered an open-chain exercise?Bench pressThe process of diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in and out of the bloodstream occurs in what structure or structures?Alveolar sacsWhich upper-body yoga stretch is considered controversial and may be a risk for injury?Plow poseWhich term describes the act of lightly pushing on a client's shoulders when they are balancing on one foot so they can learn to maintain or recover balance?PerturbationWhat are the three types of muscles in the body?Skeletal, cardiac, and smoothWhat are common physical characteristics of those with emphysema?Those with emphysema are frequently underweight and may exhibit hypertrophied neck muscles.Which statement is an accurate reflection of exercise and physical activity as it relates to arthritis?Cardiorespiratory training should begin at a low to moderate intensity (40 to 65% HRmax).Which of the following is an appropriate assessment for a senior client who is sedentary?Pushing testWhat is the approximate percentage of those who will quit a fitness program within the first 6 months after they begin?0.5Which of the following is a limiting factor for how long anaerobic glycolysis can proceedFree hydrogen ionsWhich of the following is proper technique during a squat movement?Tracking the knees over the second and third toesWhich of the following is a component of agility training?DecelerationWhat training stage is ideally suited for new exercisers seeking general health-and-fitness improvements, such as reducing their risk for diabetes?Stage 1If someone specifically wanted to burn a lot of fat (not necessarily total calories), what type of exercise should they do?Low- to moderate-intensity exercise for 30 to 60 minutesWhat equation represents power?Force x velocityWhich surface would be the most challenging for a new client starting a balance training program?BOSU ballWhat measurement is dependent upon the length of the lever arm and the angle between the force application and the lever arm?TorqueWhich type of training would most likely lead to increased levels of testosterone, insulin-like growth factors, and growth hormone?Overload training that is of a high intensity with limited rest periodsWhat component of breathing improves blood flow back to the heart?Inspiration with a decrease in intrathoracic pressureWhat does the first law of thermodynamics state?Energy can neither be created nor destroyed.What is the fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone?LigamentExcessive anterior pelvic tilt would lead to this posture of the lumbar spine.Increased lordosisIntentions are a good predictor of behavior, but what has been shown to help translate intentions into behavior?PlanningWhy is nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) important?NEAT can be protective against obesity.Strength-training machines provide training primarily in which planes of motion?Frontal and sagittalWhat are two medical precautions for self-myofascial techniques?Joint hypermobility and scoliosisWhich term specifically describes motor function of muscles in the lower extremity?Neuromuscular functionWhich of the following protein structures is important for muscular contractions by providing a binding site?TroponinWhat must be maintained when performing exercises in a proprioceptively enriched environment?Correct techniqueWhat is the primary function of the global muscles of the core?Force production during dynamic whole-body movementsWhich heart chamber gathers deoxygenated blood returning to the heart from the superior and inferior vena cava veins?Right atriumWhen observing sprint mechanics, which joint action should you see occurring in the rear leg if proper form is used?Ankle plantar flexionPerforming a hop-training program on a firm surface would be an example of which type of balance?Semi-dynamic balance