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DVMSGU TERM 1 NUTRITION
Terms in this set (42)
cereal grains, molasses, fruit pulps, cereal co-producs and forages
Plant oils, animal fats
List the GE for glucose in MJ/Kg
List the GE for lipids in MJ/Kg
List the GE for protein in MJ/Kg
List the GE for glucose in Kcal/kg
List the GE for lipids in Kcal/kg
List the GE for protein in Kcal/kg
Energy released when a dietary raw material or complete feed is completely combusted in an atmosphere of oxygen
Energy available following digestion:
ME= GE- (fecal +urinary+ methane energy)
Energy available for maintenance and production
NE=GE- (fecal + urinary + methane energy+ heat increment)
What should be taken into consideration when looking at energy values for chickens?
void both digestive and metabolic losses through the cloaca
Are methane losses significant in non-ruminants?
No, they are insignificant
What is the best estimate of dietary energy actually available to animal/bird for maintenance/production?
Cons of NE
Difficult to measure
Complex to use as value is dependent upon numerous factors (age, sex, breed, environment, diet)
Where is the most digestibility occurring in the GIT?
terminal end of the ileum
Where is glucose absorbed?
Where are volatile fatty acids absorbed?
Large intestine fermentation
What is more efficiently utilized once absorbed: glucose or vfas?
Cons of ME
Measurement requires estimation of fecal and urinary output
Urinary losses are relatively small and constant under controlled conditions
Why is ME not very useful to use with the pig?
Complexity of estimating a comparatively small and constant output (urinary) is probably not justified
What is the most appropriate energy term to use for poultry?
ME because metabolic and digestive losses are very separate in poultry due to the cloaca
Pros of DE
Comparatively simple to determine
Accounts for major proportion of variable losses of ingested dietary energy
Not accounting for metabolic losses in the urine
Cons of DE
May be associated with inaccuracies if environmental, dietary and animal conditions vary
What is the most appropriate energy term to use for pigs?
Pros of GE
Very simple and quick to determine
Cons of GE
Does not take into account any losses to the animal or bird during digestion and metabolism
What microorganisms are found in the rumen micro-flora?
Bacteria, protozoa, and fungi
What products are produced by the rumen microflora?
VFAs, microbial protein and gasses (30l/hr; 40% Co2;30-40% CH4)
What is the pH of the rumen?
What are some salivary buffers used to maintain rumen pH?
phosphate and bicarbonate
What are the issues of feeding ruminants unsaturated fatty acids with rumen health?
Depress DMI, impair fibre digestion, toxic to rumen bacteria, signal cow to cease eating, impair rumen fermentation
Why should you feed saturated fatty acids?
Don't generally affect DMI, rumen inert(doesn't upset rumen function); stearic acid digestible form : reduces fat accumulation in liver and improves reproductive performance
What are the three types of VFAs?
acetate, butyrate and propionate
What types of diets produce high acetate production?
Mature grass, grass silage and hay
Why should DE not be used in ruminants?
As methane losses are high (~8%) then ME not DE must e used
Cons of doing in vitro studies to assess energy values in animal balance studies
Lengthy; expensie and may compromise animal welfare
What would the graph between DE and fibre look like for non-ruminants?
Non-ruminants lack the capacity to digest plant fiber therefore there is a negative correlation between DE and fiber; Negative slope
What is non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)
A more nutritionally acceptable definition of fibre
T/F Younger animals can digest fiber better then older animals?
What does NIRS stand for?
near infra-red spectroscopy
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