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AP Euro Midterm
Chapters 12 - 20 questions from all tests
Terms in this set (145)
Who coined the term Renaissance when referring to the time period 1350-1550?
The Italian Renaissance was primarily:
A recovery of rebirth or antiquity and Greco-Roman culture
By the 15th century, Italy was:
Dominated by five major regional independent powers
Machiavelli's ideas as expressed in The Prince achieve a model for:
A modern secular concept of power politics
In the late 15th century, Italy became a battleground for the competing interests of:
Spain and France
Which of the following groups of Italian artists dominated the High Renaissance?
da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo
The "new monarchs" of the late 15th century in Europe:
Were focused on the acquisition and expansion of power
Northern Renaissance art consists of all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Large fresco paintings
b. Intimate detailed works
c. Stained glass windows
d. Wooden panel art
Renaissance humanism is primarily defined as:
A curriculum based on the study of the classics, rhetoric, and history
What pamphlet had the most direct influence in shaping the model of the European gentleman during the Renaissance period?
Castiglione's The Courier
Machiavelli's attitude toward power is based on:
The understanding of human nature
The political strength of the Medici family in Florence was initially based on:
The influence and wealth of their bank
What event can be linked to the decline of the Renaissance?
Sack of Rome
The Northern humanists:
Championed the study of classical and early Christian texts to reform the Catholic Church
Which is among the chief characteristics of John Calvin's reform movement?
Predestination and absolute sovereignty of God
The religious order that was founded as part of the Catholic Reformation in the 16th century was called the:
Which statement is true of England in the 1500s?
Henry VIII broke the England free of Rome, but really remained a Catholic
The Protestant Reformation helped change the social roles of 16th century women by:
Reducing access to religious orders
A central feature of the Catholic Reformation was the:
Establishment of new religious orders such as the Jesuits
The Edict of Nantes was all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Was an acknowledgement that Catholicism was the official religion of France
b. Expelled the Huguenots from France
c. Recognized the rights of the Protestant minority
d. Was a political decision
e. Was an attempt to reduce religious violence in France
The "New Monarchy" of Spain built up its power:
By working through the institutions of the Catholic Church to impose religious conformity on the entire country
Charles V became the most powerful ruler in Europe because:
Through marriage and inheritance, he received control of Austria, Spain, and Southern Italy and other territories.
According to Martin Luther, the authority to define true Christian belief was located:
In each individual's own conscience
During the German Peasants war, Martin Luther:
Sided with the princes
The Roman Catholic Council of Trent had as its primary result:
Reform within the Catholic Church and reaffirmation of Catholic doctrine
Under Elizabeth, the Church of England:
Adopted a Protestant liturgy and theology
The Catholic movement corresponding to opposition to the rise of Protestantism was known as the:
The Catholic or Counter Reformation
According to class discussion, the Anabaptists evolved in to which contemporary religious group:
Victory over the Spanish Armada at the end of the 16th century was achieved by:
The founder of Portugal's maritime success was:
Why did the Dutch, English, and French fail to begin colonization of the Americas until more than a hundred years after the Spanish and Portuguese?
Domestic troubles and religious controversies delayed organized government action.
When Columbus struck land in 1492, he supposed it to be:
An outlying part of the Indies
A treaty of 1494 divided control of the globe outside Europe between which two countries? What was its name?
Spain and Portugal, Treaty of Tordesillas
Hernando Cortes and Francisco Pizzaro conquered what empires, respectively:
Aztec and Inca
Which of the following was a factor that triggered the exploitation of African slaves?
a. The Portuguese settlement of the Western African coast
b. The success of the Portuguese who used African slaves
c. The severe drop of the American Native population
d. All of the above
All of the following were causes of the Commercial Revolution except:
a. New ocean trade routes
b. Population decrease
c. Price Revolution
d. New nation-center economic system called mercantilism
The Dutch were not kicked out of Japan because:
The Dutch were the most tolerant of any nation towards Japanese culture and religion.
The new business methods resulting from the "Commercial Revolution" included which of the following?
a. Banks taking over the family role of investing
b. Joint-stock companies
c. Exploration fundraising
d. All of the above
In early modern Europe, women were accused of practicing witchcraft more often than were men because of the belief that women:
Were more vulnerable to temptation
The Thirty Years' War began in
The Peace of Westphalia
Strengthened the German states
The reign of Peter the Great of Russia (1682-1725) resulted in which of the following:
The territorial expansion of Russia
The major economic business of the Dutch was:
The primary difference between Hobbes and Locke included:
How humans would act without an organized society
The Long Parliament, which met from 1640-1660:
Opposed the policies of the king, and eventually led to the Civil War of England
The "Glorious Revolution" of 1688 was significant because:
It established the primacy of parliamentary government.
The Fronde was:
Rebellion by the nobility and parliaments against Cardinal Mazarin, the king's chief minister
Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685 because:
He thought religious unity was necessary for the monarchy's strength and dignity.
All of the following were wars of Louis XIV except:
a. War of Spanish Succession (1702-13)
b. War of Devolution (1667-68)
c. The Dutch War (1688-97)
d. The Seven Years War (1756-63)
The Final Phase of the Thirty Years War was:
The Franco-Swedish Phase
In the end, the wars of Louis XIV:
Left France in debt
Which of the following is an accurate characterization of England in the period 1688-1715?
A constitutional monarchy controlled by an aristocratic oligarchy
Which revoked the Edict of Nantes?
The Edict of Fontainebleau
The great scientific discoveries of the 16th and 17th centuries led European scholars to believe that:
The universe was orderly and operated according to fixed rules.
Johannes Kepler improved on Copernican theories by:
Demonstrating that planets have elliptical orbits
The Ptolemaic view of the universe, accepted by most Europeans prior to the 17th century, held all of the following beliefs except:
a. The earth was flat.
b. The stars and planets were not at very great distance from Earth.
c. The stars and planets were made of pure light or a bright ethereal substance.
d. A series of crystalline, transparent spheres moving in circular orbits around Earth.
Copernicus' great contribution to our understanding of the universe:
Was to theorize that the sun was at the center of the solar system
Galileo, looking at the sky through his telescope, observed that:
Heavenly bodies were made of the same kind of material as the earth
Sir Isaac Newton's greatest discovery or insight was:
The founding of the Royal Society of London and the Academy of Sciences in France in 1600s:
Helped to institutionalize the pursuit of natural knowledge
The person to challenge the Ptolemaic model was:
The first astronomical telescope was constructed by:
Isaac Newton developed:
The first practical surgical manual was compiled by:
William Harvey's most important discovery was:
The circulation of blood
The deductive method was based on:
Faith in reason
The process of systematic doubt reflected in the statement, "I think, therefore I am" was developed by:
"Two Treatises of Government" was written by:
The largest publishing venture of the Enlightenment was:
Which Enlightenment work became the central idea of the US Constitution?
Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws
The statement "crush the infamous thing" applies to:
Adam Smith's philosophy of economics basically advocated all but:
Increased tariff regulation
The foundation of Montesquieu's ideas for reform stem from:
The inefficient absolutism of monarchy in France
The concept that under certain circumstances some people must be forced to be free is associated with the thinking of:
Which off the following is the least accurate statement about the philosophes?
They were most often men from the upper classes of society.
Which of the following was not a fundamental principle of the Enlightenment?
Which form of government did Locke prefer?
Representative democracy to ensure that governments are responsive to the people
Which form of government did Rousseau prefer?
Direct democracy which everyone voted to express the general will
Which of the following is NOT a reason for the beginning of the Enlightenment?
a. Greater exploration led to an appreciation and interest in foreign cultures.
b. Discoveries of the Scientific Revolution changed how people thought.
c. The Thirty Years War compelled writers to philosophize about the nature of war.
d. The church encouraged citizens to rely on reason rather than believe in the divine.
Women played their most prominent role during the Enlightenment by:
Deists such as Voltaire believe:
God created the universe, but then played no additional role in shaping course of events.
Locke's deepest book, an Essay Concerning the Human Understanding (1690), concludes that:
True knowledge is derived from experience.
Adam Smith's pivotal economic work is:
The Wealth of Nations
Which would govern a civilization in Rousseau's ideal world?
The general will
In which field did Beccaria seek reform:
Which musical period corresponds most closely with the Enlightenment?
Which is not an artist of the Enlightenment time period?
c. Jacques-Louis David
On the Fabric of the Human Body
Recorded movements of each known planet
Inductive method for scientific experiment
Discovered a comet
On the Motion of the Heart and Blood
Grounds of Natural Philosophy
The Starry Messenger
On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres
Advocated a deductive method for search of truth
Vindication of the Rights of Women
Enlightened Ruler of Austria
Treaties on Human Nature
Social Contract of General Will
3 Functions of Government
"Crush the infamous thing"
Spirit of the Law
Essay Concerning Human Undestanding
The Marriage of Figaro
This phrase means "without breeches," the working-class people of France who were determined to push the Revolution in a more radical action, attacked the king's guard, and committed the September Massacres:
Napoleon was defeated at what battle before his first stint in exile:
Passed in 1790, this piece of legislation subjected the Catholic Church to state control, declaring the Church to be independent from the Pope and that the clergy was to be paid by the government and elected by the people, ended papal authority over the Church in France and dissolved monasteries and convents:
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Which of the following did not contribute to France's pre-revolution debt?
High tariffs on imported goods
Who issued the Declaration of Pillnitz?
Austria and Prussia
Who dominated the Committee of Public Safety?
What did the Tennis Court Oath establish?
The National Assembly would not dissolve until they had created a constitution.
Which Parisian landmark was raided by revolutionaries in the pursuit of arms?
Which period was known as the Great Terror?
1793-1794, when Robespierre systematically killed more than 15,000 alleged counterrevolutionaries
What did the Second Estate comprise?
What was the main reason that several thousand women marched on Versailles in October 1789?
Bread shortages in Paris
France celebrates July 14 as a holiday because it's the anniversary of:
The storming of the Bastille
For how many years did Napoleon Bonaparte rule France after overthrowing the Directory?
Which of the following characterizes the size of the population of Europe during the 18th century?
It increased rapidly.
Frederick the Great (1740-1786) contributed most to the rise of Prussia as a major European power by:
Annexing the Hapsburg province of Silesia
The chief influences of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars on Europe (1789-1815) outside of France was that they:
Strengthened German nationalism and sped up unification
An important difference in marriage and family patterns in the 18th century from previous years was that:
Both men and women were marrying at a younger age.
Which of the following was not an important factor in the population increase in continental Europe during the 18th century?
Improved sanitation and hygiene
The Junkers were the nobility in:
The main manufacture in Europe in the 18th century was:
A major difference between industrialization in Britain and the United States and industrialization in continental Europe was that in continental Europe:
Governments were more involved in industrial development.
Which of the following social classes grew substantially in western Europe during the 19th century?
Landed aristocracy and bourgeoisie
All of the following groups increased working-class consciousness during the 19th century except:
The power loom was patented by:
Two major process of textile manufacturing are weaving and:
Britain's first railroad expert was:
Which country was not a first imitator of Industrial Britain?
The first textile mill in the US was located in:
The person responsible for opening the mill in Rhode Island was:
The following was not true of women workers:
a. They were mostly single.
b. They worked for less money than their male counterparts.
c. The Factory Act of 1833 protected their work day hours.
d. They made up 50% of the labor force in textile factories before 1870.
All of the following were true of child laborers except:
a. They often suffered permanent physical and mental injury.
b. They could be physically punished.
c. They earned more than a male worker.
d. Their parents often wanted them to work
The chartist movement included demands for:
Universal male suffrage
The largest and most successful trade union formed in 1850 was:
Amalgamated Society of Engineers
The Factory Act of 1833:
Stipulated that children between ages 9 and 13 could work only eight-hour days
As Great Britain developed economically after 1750, it required all of the following except:
a. More raw materials
b. More markets from abroad
c. Improved transport facilities
d. More investment capital
e. A greater percentage of people employed in agriculture
The Great Exhibition of 1851:
Exhibited the wide variety of products created by the Industrial Revolution
All of the following are true of the Great Famine except:
a. It decimated the Irish population between 1845-1851.
b. It led to the emigration of almost two million to the US and Britain.
c. It was caused by the plague.
d. It was caused by a fungus that turned the potato black.
What colony was an excellent example of how some rapidly industrializing nations in Europe worked to deliberately thwart the spread of the Industrial Revolution to their colonial dominions?
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