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55 terms

Dental X-ray Film Processing- Chapter 9

-Time & Temperature Error -Chemical Contamination Error -Film Handling Error -Lighting Error
STUDY
PLAY
What absorbs radiation during exposure and stores the energy from radiation?
Silver halide crystals located in the film emulsion
Stored energy within the silver halide crystals forms a pattern, and creates an invisible image, this pattern of stored energy is called what on the exposed film?
latent image
What is the chemical reaction that occurs when the halide portion of the exposed, energized silver halide crystals are removed?
reduction
What is it called when reduction results in the crystals becoming totally black while the unexposed (unenergized) silver halide crystals are removed from film?
selective reduction
What is the first step in film processing? A chemical solution is used in this process. The purpose is to reduce the exposed, energized silver halide crystals chemically into black metallic silver. This solution softens the film emulsion during this process.
Development
After development, a water bath is used to wash the film. This is necessary to remove the developer from the film and stop the development process. What process is this and what step?
Rinsing (step 2)
After rinsing, this takes place. This chemical solution is essential for this process. The purpose of this is to remove the unexposed, unenergized silver halide crystals from the film emulsion. This also hardens the film emulsion during this process. What process and step is this?
Fixer (step 3)
After fixation, what is this step called that is necessary to thoroughly remove all excess chemicals from the emulsion?
Washing (step 4, a water bath is used to wash the film)
The final step in film processing is what? know some key things about this process...
Drying (step 5- Films may be air-dried at room temperature in a dust-free area or placed in a heated drying cabinet. Films must be completely dried before they can be handled for mounting and viewing)
Which step is selective reduction?
fixation (removing crystals that have no energy)
Readily permits passage of the x-ray beam and appears black is called what?
radiolucent
Resists passage of the x-ray beam and appears white is called what?
radiopaque
Name the 5 step to film processing? (turning a latent image into a visible image)
development
rinsing
fixation
washing
drying
What step of film processing does reduction take place?
Development
-To reduce the exposed, energized silver halide crystals into black, metallic silver.
-Softens the emulsion
Development
Stops the development process
Rinsing
-Removes the unexposed, unenergized silver halide crystals from the film
-Hardens the film emulsion
Fixation
Removes all excess chemicals fromt the emulsion
Washing
Films must be what before they can be handled or mounted for viewing?
Dryed
-Powder
-Ready to use liquid
-Liquid concentrate
are options for what?
film processing solutions
Film processing solutions must be replenished ?, changed every ? to ? weeks, and change more frequents when ? numbers of films are processed
daily
3 to 4 wks
large
The development agent which is the reducing element contains 2 chemicals...
1) which one generates black tones and sharp contrast?
2) which one generates shades of gray?
(national board ?)
1) hydroquinone
2) elon
The development solution has 4 ingredients total, the chemicals (hydroquinone & elon), and 3 other things...
2) sodium sulfate, which is the?
3) sodium carbonate, " ?
4) potassium bromide, " ?
& what is the optimal temperature for the solution?
(national board ?)
2) preservative
3) accelerator
4) restrainer
68 degress
The fixer solution has 4 ingredients...
1) fixing agent (clearing agent) called ?
2) preservative called ?
3) hardening agent?
4) acidifier?
1) sodium thiosulfate or ammonium thiosulfate
2) sodium sulfite
3) potassium alum
4) acetic acide or sulfuric acid
The darkroom is very important for processing diagnostic radiographs, convenient location, adequate size, correct lights, enough work space & storage are essential, and ? & ? is controlled.
temperature & humidity
Long-wavelengths in the red-orange portion of the visible light spectrum are used for the what?
darkroom safelight
Required in a dark room, but is not associated with processing films is the what?
room lighting
What is it called when no light leaks can be present?
light-tight
The safelight has to be a ? wattage bulb
low (7 1/2 or 15 watts)
The safelight filter removes short wavelengths in the ?-? portion of the visible light spectrum?
blue-green
Safelights need to be placed a min of ? feet away from the film and working area
4 ft away
To process film you need a ? or a ?
processing tank
automatic processor
With ? processing there is a processing tank divided into compartments to hold developer solution, water bath, and fixer solution.
manual processing by hand

info- equipment accessories, step by step procedures, care & maintenance
In the processing tank what controls the water temperature?
mixing valve
1) Automates all film-processing steps
-may be limited to certain sizes of film
-may require a darkroom
2) Day light loader
- may be used in a room with white light
This is a what?
automatic processor

info- you have to check levels of solutions, temperature- (cooler temp= longer processing time)
What is placed in the developer solution for manual film processing? name 3 other items you would need?
-thermometer
-timer, to indicate processing time intervals
-film hangers
-stirring rod (misc equip)
What occurs when developer and fixer combine with oxygen and lose strength?
oxidation
which solution is super concentrated?
replenisher
-Deposit build up on the inside walls of insert tanks and this is caused by mineral ? in water and ? in processing solutions.
-Tanks must be cleaned with commercial cleaner or ? acid with the solutions are changed
-Rollers are cleaned for automatic processors
-salts, carbonate
-hydrochloric
-Automatic processors may require ? or ? cleaning and "?" film is used to clean the rollers of an automatic processor
-Levels of processing solutions must be checked when ?
-daily or weekly
"cleaning"
-beginning of each day, and replenished when needed
In underdeveloped film the film appears ?, too little time in the ?, temperature could have been too ?, or depleted or diluted solution could cause this
light
developer
cold
In overdeveloped film, the film is ?, could have been caused by too much time in the ?, temperature too ?, solutions too ?
dark
developer
warm
concentrated
What is it called when film looks cracked? This is caused when there is a drastic change between the ? and the ?
reticulation of emulsion
developer solution & water bath
Dark spots on film
developer spots
White spots on film
fixer spots
Insufficient time in fixer or water
yellow-brown stains
straight white border appears on film is called what and caused by ?
-developer cutoff
-low levels of dev solution
White or dark areas appear on films where what occurred?
overlapped films
Straight black border appears on film is called what and caused by ?
-fixer cutoff
-low levels of fixer solution
White spots appear on film can be from?
air bubbles
Black fingerprints on film is called ?
fingerprint artifact
Black, crescent-shaped marks on film is called ?
fingernail artifact
White lines on film are called ?
scratched film
If there is a light leak the film will turn what color?
black
What can be caused by the patient moving, dev chemicals not right, light leak, which causes the film to lack image detail and contrast (appears grey)?
fogged film