What absorbs radiation during exposure and stores the energy from radiation?
Silver halide crystals located in the film emulsion
Stored energy within the silver halide crystals forms a pattern, and creates an invisible image, this pattern of stored energy is called what on the exposed film?
What is the chemical reaction that occurs when the halide portion of the exposed, energized silver halide crystals are removed?
What is it called when reduction results in the crystals becoming totally black while the unexposed (unenergized) silver halide crystals are removed from film?
What is the first step in film processing? A chemical solution is used in this process. The purpose is to reduce the exposed, energized silver halide crystals chemically into black metallic silver. This solution softens the film emulsion during this process.
After development, a water bath is used to wash the film. This is necessary to remove the developer from the film and stop the development process. What process is this and what step?
Rinsing (step 2)
After rinsing, this takes place. This chemical solution is essential for this process. The purpose of this is to remove the unexposed, unenergized silver halide crystals from the film emulsion. This also hardens the film emulsion during this process. What process and step is this?
Fixer (step 3)
After fixation, what is this step called that is necessary to thoroughly remove all excess chemicals from the emulsion?
Washing (step 4, a water bath is used to wash the film)
The final step in film processing is what? know some key things about this process...
Drying (step 5- Films may be air-dried at room temperature in a dust-free area or placed in a heated drying cabinet. Films must be completely dried before they can be handled for mounting and viewing)
Name the 5 step to film processing? (turning a latent image into a visible image)
-To reduce the exposed, energized silver halide crystals into black, metallic silver.
-Softens the emulsion
-Removes the unexposed, unenergized silver halide crystals from the film
-Hardens the film emulsion
Film processing solutions must be replenished ?, changed every ? to ? weeks, and change more frequents when ? numbers of films are processed
3 to 4 wks
The development agent which is the reducing element contains 2 chemicals...
1) which one generates black tones and sharp contrast?
2) which one generates shades of gray?
(national board ?)
The development solution has 4 ingredients total, the chemicals (hydroquinone & elon), and 3 other things...
2) sodium sulfate, which is the?
3) sodium carbonate, " ?
4) potassium bromide, " ?
& what is the optimal temperature for the solution?
(national board ?)
The fixer solution has 4 ingredients...
1) fixing agent (clearing agent) called ?
2) preservative called ?
3) hardening agent?
1) sodium thiosulfate or ammonium thiosulfate
2) sodium sulfite
3) potassium alum
4) acetic acide or sulfuric acid
The darkroom is very important for processing diagnostic radiographs, convenient location, adequate size, correct lights, enough work space & storage are essential, and ? & ? is controlled.
temperature & humidity
Long-wavelengths in the red-orange portion of the visible light spectrum are used for the what?
The safelight filter removes short wavelengths in the ?-? portion of the visible light spectrum?
With ? processing there is a processing tank divided into compartments to hold developer solution, water bath, and fixer solution.
manual processing by hand
info- equipment accessories, step by step procedures, care & maintenance
1) Automates all film-processing steps
-may be limited to certain sizes of film
-may require a darkroom
2) Day light loader
- may be used in a room with white light
This is a what?
info- you have to check levels of solutions, temperature- (cooler temp= longer processing time)
What is placed in the developer solution for manual film processing? name 3 other items you would need?
-timer, to indicate processing time intervals
-stirring rod (misc equip)
-Deposit build up on the inside walls of insert tanks and this is caused by mineral ? in water and ? in processing solutions.
-Tanks must be cleaned with commercial cleaner or ? acid with the solutions are changed
-Rollers are cleaned for automatic processors
-Automatic processors may require ? or ? cleaning and "?" film is used to clean the rollers of an automatic processor
-Levels of processing solutions must be checked when ?
-daily or weekly
-beginning of each day, and replenished when needed
In underdeveloped film the film appears ?, too little time in the ?, temperature could have been too ?, or depleted or diluted solution could cause this
In overdeveloped film, the film is ?, could have been caused by too much time in the ?, temperature too ?, solutions too ?
What is it called when film looks cracked? This is caused when there is a drastic change between the ? and the ?
reticulation of emulsion
developer solution & water bath
straight white border appears on film is called what and caused by ?
-low levels of dev solution
Straight black border appears on film is called what and caused by ?
-low levels of fixer solution