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never grow woody tissue. They are usually green-stemmed, often short-lived (annuals) and soft. Examples: Herb Robert, stinging nettle, buttercup


do grow woody stems and live for years (they're perennials.) They are relatively low in stature compared to trees, and they lack a central main trunk. A typical shrub will have several stems arising from the ground. Examples: blackberry, Oregon grape, willow


grow woody tissue and can live for centuries. They do have a central trunk. Examples: bigleaf maple, cottonwood, douglas fir


protects from (water getting soggy) and slows down transpiration ( the loss of water)

Epidermis (upper and lower)

provides the first layer of protection, protects against water loss, regulates gas exchange, and (especially in roots) absorbs water and mineral nutrients.

Palisade Mesophyll

has most of the chloroplasts and is where most photosynthesis takes place.

Spongy Mesophyll

has stomata and is the site transportation and gas exchange.


special cells allow stomata to close to prevent water loss, or to open to allow air to move in and out.


transport water, but it also transports some nutrients through the plant.


carries the products of photosynthesis through the plant.

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