16 terms

IGCSE Sociology.

Vocabulary from unit 2.1 and 2.2
STUDY
PLAY
Ethnic group
A social group whose members share an identity based on their cultural traditions or cultural characteristics, such as religion or language. Eg Indian, Irish, Polish
Gender
the social or cultural differences between men and women, which are associated with masculinity and feminity.
Mass media
Forms of communication that reaches large audiences, including newspapers magazines, books, television, cinema and the internet.
Peer group
A group of people who share a similar status and position in society, such as people of a similar age, outlook or occupation.
Research techniques
Systematic methods of collecting data, such as questionnaires, interviews and observation.
Social issues
These effect communities, groups and peoples lives. Contemporary social issues relating to families.; Eg parenting quality, relationships between adults and teenagers, care of the elderly. Marriages.
Social processes
Processes in society that involve interactions between individuals, groups and institutions
Social structures
Institutions that make up society, such as the family, education and stratification systems.
Socialization
The process through which we learn the culture and appropriate behaviour (norms and values) of the particular group or society we are born into. It also prepares us for the roles we will play in society.
Stratification
The way society is structured into hierarchical layers with the most privileged at the top and the least favoured at the bottom. Eg Social Class
Culture
The whole way of life of a particular society or social group. Culture includes the values, customs, beliefs, knowledge, skills and language of the society or group.
Negative sanctions
Sanctions that punish those who do not conform to the groups expectations. Eg by ignoring them
Norms
Appropriate and expected behaviour in particular social contexts such as classrooms, cinemas, restaurants or aeroplanes
Positive sanctions
Sanctions that reward those who behave according to the groups expectations. Eg praise.
Taboo
Describes behaviour that is not usually allowed according to custom or tradition.
Values
a general guideline for conduct that has a belief or idea about what is desirable and worth striving for. Eg Privacy, respect for life
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