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Biology Final Flash Cards
Terms in this set (99)
What is a theory?
A theory is a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observation.
In science, a hypothesis is useful only if...
...it can be tested.
Which bonds are the strongest types of chemical bonds (strongest attraction)?
Covalent bonds are the strongest types of chemical bonds.
Amino acid is to protein as...
-nucleotide is to nucleic acid.
Which organic compound is the main source of energy for living things?
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for all living things.
Enzymes affect the reactions in living cells by changing the...
...speed of the reaction.
...membrane bound organelles and nuclei.
A cell or plasma membrane is described as:
Which means of particle transport requires input of energy from the cell?
DNA is copied during a process called...
... DNA replication.
During protein synthesis ____ is transcribed into ____ and then translated into ____.
-chain of amino acids (proteins)
Photosynthesis uses sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into...
...high-energy sugar (glucose) and oxygen.
What is the equation for cellular respiration?
C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂ → 6CO₂ + 6H₂O + energy
During interphase, DNA is copied during a process called...
DNA replication is INITIATED in the G1 phase of interphase. DNA actually replicates in the S phase. The DNA copying process is called DNA replication.
A controlled experiment allows the scientist to isolate and test..
...a single variable.
How many centimeters are in 15.0 m?
What type of electron is available to form bonds?
Valence electrons are available to form bonds.
What type of ion forms when an atom loses electrons?
A positive ion forms when an atom loses electrons becuase the number of protons will be more than the number of electrons and the protons are positevly charged.
Solutions that contain concentrations of H+ ions higher than pure water are...
...acids (pH scale=below 7).
What are the various functions of proteins?
The various functions of proteins include transportation, storing molecules, and serving as an enzymatic catalysts.
If a reaction in one direction releases energy, the reaction in the opposite direction does...
...not release energy, rather absorbs it.
Why is the nucleus important to cells?
The nucleus is important to cells because it stores information, controls cell activity, and is in charge of genetic duplication and retrieval.
What is a function of the cytoskeleton?
The cytoskeleton provides framework and gives shape to the cell.
The cell membrane contains channels and pumps that help move materials from one side to the other. What are these channels and pumps made of?
These channels and pumps are made of proteins.
What are the levels of organization in a multicellular organism from simplest level to the most complex level?
4) organ systems
What are some examples of autotrophs?
Greens, algae, trees, etc.
What is ATP? What is it used for?
ATP is the major energy currency of the cell, and it is used for providing energy for all the energy-consuming cellular functions.
Plants gather the sun's energy with light-absorbing molecules called...
Most plants appear green because chlorophyll...
...does not absorb light well in the green region. Rather, the green light is reflected and that is why plants are green.
What is the main product of the Calvin Cycle?
...glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P).
What is the correct sequence of events in cellular respiration?
2) Krebs Cycle
3) Electron Transport Chain
What is the correct equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 6H2O (water) + light energy --> C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 (oxygen)
What processes of cellular respiration take place in the cytoplasm of the cell?
Glycolysis provides a cell with a maximum NET gain of __ ATP.
Lactic acid fermentation occurs in which organisms?
Unicellular organisms such as prokaryotes.
The starting molecule for the Krebs Cycle is the _______.
Acetyl-coenzymeA or pyruvic acid.
In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is found in the _______.
...inner mitochondria membrane.
Which molecule passes high-energy electrons INTO the electron transport chain in the mitochondria?
The products of photosynthesis are...
...sugar (glucose) and oxygen.
What happens when a cell divides?
...it forms two new daughter cells, and each daughter cell receives a copy of the parent cell's DNA.
What are the phases of mitosis?
The phases of mitosis are:
What is the role of the spindle during mitosis?
The role of the spindle during mitosis is that they help to separate chromatids from the centromere.
One DIFFERENCE between cell division in plant cells and in animal cells is that plant cells have ______.
In eukaryotic cells, the timing of the cell cycle is regulated by ________.
During normal mitotic cell division, a parent cell having eight chromosomes will produce two daughter cells, each containing _____ chromosomes.
Cancer is a disorder in which some cells have lost the ability to control their _______.
Which of the following is a nucleotide found in
Adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine.
Because of base pairing in DNA, Chargaff's rules state that the percentage of _____ equals ______.
Which type(s) of RNA is(are) involved in protein synthesis?
Why is it possible for an amino acid to be specificied by more than one kind of codon?
There are 64 codons in the genetic code and only 20 amino acids.
A mutation that involves a single nucleotide is called a(an) __________.
A promoter site on a bacterial chromosome is a place where...
...transcription of a gene by RNA polymerase begins.
If a specific kind of protein is not continually used by a cell, the gene for that protein is ________.
...turned off and on at different times by the operon.
A lac repressor turns off the lac genes by ________.
...binding to the lac operon, the operator.
Hox genes determine an animal's _________.
...basic body plan.
Suppose a bacterial culture was mixed with recombinant plasmids containing a gene for resistance to penicillin, and then the bacterial culture was then treated with penicillin. What would you expect to happen?
Any bacteria that took up the plasmid would be resistant.
Miller and Urey's experiments attempted to demonstrate __________.
...how organic molecules have formed before life was present.
All organisms in the kingdoms of Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia are _______.
The two domains composed of only
organisms are __________.
...eubacteria and archaea.
The instructions for making new copies of a virus are found on...
...DNA or RNA. A virus is DNA or RNA + a protein coat, which is the capsid.
Viruses are considered to be ________.
Viruses cause infection by _________.
...taking over a living cell, or causing the cell to self destruct.
The process by which organ systems maintain a relatively stable internal environment is called _________.
A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations is a(an) _________.
The three particles that make up atoms are...
...protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same number of protons and _______.
...a different number of neutrons.
What are the properties or components of a compound?
-2 or more elements held together by chemical bonds
(H20, C6H12O6, O2)
-can be broken down into a simpler type of matter by chemical means
-has properties that are different from its component elements
-always contains the same ratio of its component atoms
A covalent bond is formed as the result of _________.
...sharing one or more electrons.
Water molecules are polar, because...
...of the difference in electronegativity between hydrogen and oxygen. The highly electronegative oxygen atom attracts electrons or negative charge to it, making the region around the oxygen more negative than the areas around the two hydrogen atoms.
What is the term used to describe the energy needed to get a reaction started?
A substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction is called a(an) ________.
What are the principles of the cell theory?
-All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
-The cell is the most basic unit of life.
-All cells arise from pre-existing, living cells.
Which organelles help provide cells with energy?
Mitochondria and chloroplasts.
What is the correct sequence that traces the production of a protein in the cell?
DNA to mRNA to leaving the nucleus to
to protein to ER to
to "vesicle" to membrane for export.
Diffusion is the movement of molecules from...
...a higher concentration to a lower concentration.
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called...
...osmosis (passive transport).
Organisms, such as plants, that make their own food are called ___________.
Which types of organisms do not fully carry out cellular respiration?
Faculitative abaerobes, yeast lactobaccillus.
How are cellular respiration and photosynthesis almost opposite processes?
Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are almost opposite processes because photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and cellular respiration puts it back. Photosynthesis releases oxygen into the atmosphere, and cellular respiration uses the oxygen to release energy in food.
Compared to small cells, large cells have more trouble because...
...the larger a cell becomes, the more demands it places on its DNA. Also, larger cells have more trouble moving nutrients and wastes across a cell membrane.
The cell cycle is composed of the following phases...
Interphase, mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase).
The cell cycle is the...
...series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.
During DNA replication, a DNA strand that has the bases CTTGGT produces a complementary strand with the bases reading ________.
RNA contains the sugar _________.
How many nucleotides are needed to specify four amino acids?
What happens during the process of translation?
Translation is the process during which the cell uses information from mRNA to produce proteins.
What are four major groups of macromolecules found in living organisms?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids.
Refer to Figure 03.01.
If the original levels of liquid on both sides were the same, the glucose concentration on the left side was originally (where)?
The right side.
Cell membranes are composed of layers of...
The four nucleotides in a DNA molecule differ from one another only in the...
Distribution of one of each replicated chromosomes to each of two cells following mitosis ensures...
...the two daughter cells will be identical.
A group of similar cells that perform a single function is called a(an)...
What are some examples of a heterotroph?
...leopard, lion, zebra, human.
Look at Figure 8-1. All of the following are parts of an ADP molecule EXCEPT...
In Figure 8-1, between which parts of the molecules must the bonds be broken to form an ADP molecule?
Between C and D.
According to Figure 12-3, how many different triple codons specify the amino acid arginine?
4 triple codons.
Short Essay: Describe what happens when a sugar solution with two different concentrations are placed on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane in a container.
When sugar solutions with two different concentrations are placed on opposite sides of a selectively permeable membrane in a container, several things happen. First diffusion occurs, which is the process during which particles move from an area where they are more concentrated, to an area where they are less concentrated. The particles will continue to move until the concentration of the solute is the same throughout the system. When this has happened, the solute has reached equilibrium. Because of diffusion, if one side of the solution has a higher concentration of glucose than the other, then the glucose will diffuse across the selectively permeable membrane until there is an equal concentration of glucose on both sides. Once equilibrium is reached, solute particles will continue to diffuse across the membrane in both directions. Diffusion depends on random particle movements, so this process does not require the cell to use energy.
Short Essay: Compare photosynthesis with cellular respiration.
Short Essay: How does transcription differ from DNA replication? Describe at least four differences.
Transcription differs from DNA replication because of the following differences. First, replication is the duplication of two strands of DNA, whereas transcription is the formation of a single identical DNA from the two stranded DNA. Second, there are different proteins involved in replication and transcription (uracil and thymine). Third, the results of replication are two daughter cells, whereas transcription results with a protein molecule. Lastly, in transcription DNA serves as a template for RNA synthesis.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Questions - Chapter 9, Section 9.6
Bio Chapter 7
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