Exam 1 Educational Psychology

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Correlation does not equal causationCorrelation does not mean cause and effect. A correlation of 1 between two variables does not mean that one necessarily causes the other. A correlation of 0 does not mean that one prevents the other. For example, height and weight in people have a positive correlation. However, the height does not cause the weight or vice versa. It's just that they are most likely to be strongly related.experimental studiesspecific design where you can manipulate a variable and see how that manipulation affects the variableindependent variablewhat you manipulate/control overdependent variablewhat you want to measurerandom assignmentassigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groupsWhat question do you ask during experimental studies?What causes a certain phenomenon?Examples of experimental studies: a scientist studies the impact of a drug on cancerindependent variable: whether the drug is administered or not, one group will get the drug the other will not dependent variable: impact the drug has on cancerdevelopmentthe pattern of biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional changes that begins at conception and continues through the life-spanbiological processesthe development of the body, the brain, the physical aspects of the individualcognitive processesmotor skills, thought processes, things a child can do that they might not have been able to do beforesocio-emotional processesrelationships, how did they form? How did they develop? What are the differences between different individuals?neurogenesisneuron growth, new neurons are createdneural plasticityhow the brain rewires after being damaged, the flexibility that the brain has in order to use different parts in different ways depending on the needs of the individual, when one part of the brain steps up to take over the part that is damagedpruninggetting rid of the connections that are not longer being used, that way the parts that are used have more access to more potentialmyelinationfatty cover over our sheaths so that your brain can function betterlateralizationthe reason that being "right" brained or "left" brained is a mythneuronbrain cell; specialized in transmitting impulsescerebral cortexouter layer of the brain; human activitiesprefrontal cortexlast part of the brain to develop, decision making, problem solving, self regulation, and social bonding (teenagers!)corpus callosumbridges the two hemispheres of the brainwhat are the 5 basic emotions?joy, fear, disgust, anger, and sadnesswhat do emotions develop?between birth and 9 monthswhen do more complex emotions develop?between 18-24 monthsbottom up processingdetermined directly by the environmental stimuli rather than the individual's knowledge or expectationsexamples of bottom up processingtrying a new food that you do not like (disgust), you see a puppy (joy), you watch a sad movie for the first time (sadness), standing on the edge of a cliff (fear), someone deliberately spills coffee on you (anger)top down processingstored emotional knowledge, memory or expectations produce an emotion, rather than the stimulusexamples of top down processingthinking about our pets (joy), going into a situation where you are aware that there could be a negative outcome (fear), ghosts (fear), the anniversary of someone's death (sadness), thinking about the person who spilled coffee on you (anger)emotional learningawareness of own emotions and the feelings of othersself-awarenessknowing how to regulate yourself in certain situationsself-managementidea of being more aware of the processes, now what can you do about it?social awarenessknowing how to regulate yourself in social situationsrelationship skillsbig influence of cultureresponsible decision makingstopping and taking time to think something out, being aware of other peopleself regulation and delay of gratificationself regulation starts with delay of gratification- or the ability to resist a small, immediate reward in order to obtain a great one at a later time. The ability to delay gratification is associated with later outcomes; example: kids with marshmallow videoacademic outcomeshigher rates of educational attainment higher SAT scores higher ACT scorespersonal outcomeslower BMI lower divorce rates lower rates of addiction higher emotional coping skillstemperamentbehavioral style, innatewhat are the three styles of temperament?easy difficult slow to warm upgoodness of fitmatch between temperament style and rearingpersonalitydistinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the worldO.C.E.A.N5 traits, each trait is measured on a spectrum, can be influenced by environment or situationintroverts vs extrovertssituationally dependent can be based on stimuliOopennessCconscientiousnessEextroversionAagreeablenessNneuroticism (emotional instability)what are the four concepts of identity?Self Concept, Self Esteem, Self Knowledge, and Social Selfself concepthow you view yourself in the world, the idea of who you areself esteemthe feelings of who you areself knowledgeunderstanding of yourself characteristics, knowing the world and the pursuit of understanding the worldsocial selfhow you interact with others, what is your social intelligenceself concept definitionorganized cognitive structure (thoughts) that we have about ourselves; not born with it- IMPORTANT; it starts with self awarenessself esteem definitionevaluation of self-concept; influenced by peers, family, society; developmental trajectoryidentitya well-organized conception of the self made up of values, beliefs, and goals to which the individual is solidly committedhow is identity developed?through cognitive ability to predict consequences, think hypothetically consideration/evaluation of abilities in pursuing goalsidentity formationdevelopmental task to describe self in terms of attributes and in terms of roles/relationships in societywhat are Erikson's stages personality development theory?lifespan theory psychodynamic theory stages: consequential 8 stages, 8 crisesidentity results from conflicts between who you are vs how the world lets you be who you arethese crises are internalized, outside people do not affect the way you successfully or unsuccessfully complete these crises