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63 terms

Lymphatic System

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Protein-containing fluid within lymphatic vessels is called ______________
Lymph
Within the lympathic system, what stores blood platelets.
Spleen
Where can MALT (Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue ) be found?
Walls of the bronchi (Respiratory) ; Walls of pharnyx (tonsils); walls of small intestines (Peyer's Patches); wall of the colon (aggregate lymphoid nodules); walls of appendix; walls of vagina
What duct receives lymph from most of thebody.
Thoracic Duct
Small organs intimately associated with lympathic vessels are called?
Lymph nodes
The largest lymphatic organ is the __________
Spleen
Isolated clusters of lymph follicles found in the wall of the small intestines are called ____________
Peyer's Patches
Peyer's patches are clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the __________________________
Small intestines
The lymphatics function is to _________________________________________________
absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream.
Lymphatic capillaries are permeable to proteins? True or False
TRUE
The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called ________.
Peyer's Patches
Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ________.
skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement
The thymus is most active during ________.
childhood
What lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?
Right lymphatic duct
The thymus initially ___________ in size and then ___________ in size from ______________ through old age.
increases; decreases; adolescence
The lymphatic capillaries are ________ permeable than blood capillaries?
more
Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.
Plasma cells
Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.
efferent lymphatic vessel
By secreting hormones, the thymus causes what cells to become immunocompetent?
lymphocytes
List the 7 functions of the spleen.
■Site of lymphocyte proliferation
■Immune surveillance and response
■Cleanses the blood
■Stores breakdown products of RBCs for later reuse
■Spleen macrophages salvage & store Fe for use by bone marrow
■Site of fetal erythrocyte production (normally ceases after birth)
■Stores blood platelets
When the lymphatics are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________.
severe localized edema distal to the blockage
2 methods in which lymph is transported
By the pulsations of nearby arteries & by the contractions of smooth muscle in the walls of the lymphatics
_______________ produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.
B cells
Lymphoid tissue is predominantly what type of tissue?
reticular connective tissue.
A ring of lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.
tonsil
Lymph collecting or pooling from the lower extremities would first pool in the ________ before moving on up.
cisterna chyli
What is a bubo?
an infected lymph node
What is the function of a Hassall's corpuscle?
It has no known significant function.
Name 3 areas where particularly large clusters of lymph nodes occur?
Axillary, Cervical & Inguinal Areas
What is the function of MALT (Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue)
To protect the digestive and respiratory systems from foreign matter
The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.
lingual tonsils
The lymphatic system is a one-way system in which lymph flows ___________ the heart
toward
Specialized lymph capillaries present in intestinal mucosa are called _______________
Lacteals
What is the function of Lacteals?
To absorb digested fat and deliver chyle to the blood
A sentinel node is ________.
the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous
The ________ are the simplest lymphoid organs and are found at the entrance to the pharynx.
tonsils
The appendix, tonsils, and Peyer's patches are collectively called ________.
MALT
Highly specialized lymph capillaries called ________ are present in the villi of the intestinal mucosa.
lacteals
The thoracic duct of the lymphatic system empties into the ________.
left subclavian vein
Lymph nodes have more ________ lymphatic vessels than ________ lymphatic vessels.
afferent; efferent
Of the organs in the lymphatic system, only the ________ becomes less important as you get older.
thymus
Tonsils have blind-ended structures called ________.
crypts
Hassall's corpuscles are always found in the lighter-colored ________ regions of the thymus.
medullary
The ________ pulp of the spleen forms cuffs around the central arteries.
white
Lymphatic ________ are formed from the union of the largest collecting vessels.
trunks
Describe the structural and functional relationship of the vessels of the blood vascular system and the lymphatic system.
Lymphatic fluid is moved through the lymphatics by the milking action of active skeletal muscles, pressure changes within the thorax during breathing, valves to prevent backflow, and pulsation of adjacent arteries
List 4 mechanisms by which lymphatic fluid is moved through the lymphatics
Milking action of active skeletal muscles, pressure changes withinthe thorax during breathing, valves to prevent backflow and pulsation of adjacent arteries.
What is the consequence of obstruction of the lymphatics?
Obstruction of the lymphatics results in edema distal to the obstruction.
Where are the lymph node aggregations most dense?
Lymph node aggregations are most dense near the body surface in the inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions of the body
What is the special role of the thymus gland?
To secrete hormones, the thymus gland causes T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent
Name the tonsils and state their body locations.
Palatine tonsils are located on either side at the posterior end of the oral cavity. The lingual tonsils lieat the base of the tongue. The pharyngeal tonsils are in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx.
describe the functions of the spleen?
The spleen's main functions are to remove aged or defective blood cells and platelets from the blood & to store or release some of the breakdown products of th RBCs to the blood for processing by the liver. Other functions include: acting as a blood filter & reservior, serving as a site for production in developing embryos, storing blood platelets, and providing a site for lymphocyte proliferation & immune surveillance & response
Describe lymph transport in terms of rate, volume, and ability to change.
Rate: Slow (125 ml/hour) Volume: 3 liters of lymph enters the bloodstream in a 24-hour period * Change: An increase in physical activity will cause lymph flow to increase, balancing the greater rate of fluid outflow from the vascular system.
In the thymus, what is the difference in the lymphocyte density of the cortex versus the medulla?
The cortex contains densely packed, rapidly dividing lymphocytes; the medulla contains fewer lymphocytes
How does the lymphatic system both help and hinder the spread of cancer through the body?
Lymph nodes help rid the body of cancer cells by immune mechanisms. Lymph vessels may also be used to spread cancer cells throughout the body if immunity is not effective against the cancer cells.
How does the structure of a lymph node allow lymphocytes and macrophages to perform their protective function?
Macrophages ingest microorganisms and cellular debris. Lymphocytes monitor the lymphatic stream for the presence of antigens and mount an immune response. Because there are fewer efferent vessels draining the node than afferent vessels that feed it, the flow of lymph through the node stagnates somewhat, allowing time for the lymphocytes and macrophages to work.
Condition caused by parasitic worms that get in the lymph system and reproduce to proportions that block the vessels. The swelling is due to edema
elephantiasis
Tender nodes are usually due to ____________________________
inflammation,
Fixed nodes are suggestive of _____________________
malignancy
Explain why it is good when cancer has not metasized to the lymphatic system?
The lymphatic system consists of a meandering network of lymphatic vessels. Cancer cells that break free from the primary tumor can metastasize via the lymph system.
Primary organs of the lymphatic system are the _____________________
bone marrow & thymus gland
Secondary organs of the lympathic system are the _____________________
spleen & lymph nodes
The function of the lymphatic system is _____________________________
to transport excess tissue fluid (interstitial fluid) back to blood stream, transport dietary fat, and help defend body against disease causing agents.