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16 terms

Chapter 4 Vocabulary

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acclimation
adaptation to a new climate (a new temperature or altitude or environment)
population
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
natural selection
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
competitive exclusion
one species succeeding over another when the growth of both species is limited by the same resource
divergent evolution
when two or more species sharing a common ancestor become more different over time
convergent evolution
process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments
co-evolution
process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other
community
(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
keystone species
a species whose impact on its community or ecosystem are much larger and more influential than would be expected from mere abundance
interspecific competition
in a community competition for resources between members of different species
symbiosis
relationship in which two species live closely together
commensalism
symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
parasitism
symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives in or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it
niche specialization
narrow resource range specialization
resource partitioning
the differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist in a community