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adaptation to a new climate (a new temperature or altitude or environment)


a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area

natural selection

a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment

competitive exclusion

one species succeeding over another when the growth of both species is limited by the same resource

divergent evolution

when two or more species sharing a common ancestor become more different over time

convergent evolution

process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments


process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other


(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other

keystone species

a species whose impact on its community or ecosystem are much larger and more influential than would be expected from mere abundance

interspecific competition

in a community competition for resources between members of different species


relationship in which two species live closely together


symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed


symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship


symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives in or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it

niche specialization

narrow resource range specialization

resource partitioning

the differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist in a community

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