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Nicole's mother is terribly afraid of snakes. Although Nicole has never actually seen a snake, she has an intense fear of snakes and refuses to walk in the grass because of how much her mother has warned her about them.

vicarious conditioning of a phobia

Which of the following is one of benefits that those with GAD commonly believe they derive from worrying?

if i worry about it now, i won't be as upset when it happens


is a tendency to feel anxious

Why do many people with panic disorder continue to believe they are having a heart attack despite the fact that they never have?

they tend to engage in "safety behaviors" that they believe are the reason the catastrophe didn't happen

persistent and recurrent thoughts are


Derek's moods have always seemed to be unpredictable and irrational. Nancy has been diagnosed with GAD, and never knows when he is going to come home and yell at her and the kids. Family therapy has revealed moods are not irrational, but a reflection of sales at his work. Which of the following would reduce Nancy's anxiety?

Derek could call home each day and let Nancy know how the day went

Kayla has just started college and wants to make friends. She refuses to go to large parties because she is afraid she will blush and sweat. She is fine talking to people in one-on-one settings.

social phobia

Which of the following have studies of control in humans and monkeys provided support for?

Early experiences may serve as protective factors, decreasing likelihood of developing GAD

Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of OCD?

symptomatic behavior causes distress

What disorder does GAD appear to be most related to

major depression

The fact that bright light may be an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder suggests

this form of depression is produced by a malfunctioning biological clock that needs resetting

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

may lead to sexual problems

Drugs that alter availability of norepinephrine and serotonin are not clinically effective in the treatment of depression for several weeks. What does this suggest?

Changes in neurotransmitter function, as opposed to neurotransmitter level, cause depression

John's erratic behavior finally ruined his marriage. What kind of life event would this be described as?


Mania and depression may reflect defensive strategies for coping with severe stress. This is a theory associated with

psychodynamic approach

When Jill experienced her first panic attack, she felt as if she were outside of herself...


Which of the following is associated with a unique physiological response pattern?

blood-injection-injury phobia

which of the following reactions to poor test performance suggests a cognitive diathesis for depression?

I'll never understand this

When Kenneth was a young boy he went to a dentist who treated him uncaringly and inflicted a good deal of pain. Now, he is afraid of dentists and physicians. This is

generalization of classical conditioning

In order to meet criteria for a major depressive episode, a person must have

significant distress or impairment

Tara believes it is extremely important to be clean. She cleans her kitchen and bathroom daily, and the rest of the house at least once every few days. She says she wants people to be able to eat off her floors. She

Has no disorder

neurobiological factors involved in panic disorder and GAD provide evidence for the hypothesis that

Both disorders are caused by an excess of the GABA neurotransmitter

Anxiety disorders

probably exists in all societies, but take different forms in different cultures

Quentin is seeking medication to treat his panic disorder. Due to his history of substance abuse, his doctor hesitates. He will most likely write a prescription for


Cognitive approaches to social phobia focus on

challenging automatic thoughts

Evolutionary preparedness explains

Why some types of phobias are much more common than others

Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of cyclothymia?

Clinically significant distress or impairment

Which of the following is supported by research on the role of genetic influences in unipolar disorders?

The more severe the depressive disorder, the greater the genetic contribution

Why is it not wise to treat an individual who has a bipolar disorder with an antidepressant?

the drug may trigger rapid cycling

A study of poor women in London found that ______ increased the likelihood of developing depression after experiencing sever stress

Having more than three children still at home

What is the most important characteristic used to distinguish dysthymia from major depression?

Whether or not there are occasional brief periods of normal moods during the disorder

Which of the following is most likely to attempt suicide?

A 25 year old divorced woman

Postpartum blues are

common, usually brief, and not a disorder

Stressful life events

appear to increase the time to recovery from a manic episode

Joanne tends to blow up at people and then feel guilty. She worries a lot. She complains that she just doesn't really find anything exciting and life is boring.

The evidence of neuroticism and low positive affectivity, and has a high risk of developing depression

Childhood suicide

is one of top 10 causes of death for children in United States

Which of the following is NOT an existing piece of evidence that provides support for role of cognitions in panic?

only individuals who tend to catastrophize develop panic disorder

Which of the following explanations for Diana's scissors phobia would Freud be most likely to offer?

Diana's mother is a seamstress and Diana unconsciously wants to kill her

Which of the following is most characteristic of anxiety?

Avoidant behavior

The new DSM classification which omits the concept of neurosis is an improvement because

Diagnostic criteria are now based on shared, observable symptoms and are more clearly defined

What is meant by the phrase "double depression"?

An individual with dysthymia later develops major depressive disorder as well

Knowing what we know about neurotransmitter imbalances in bipolar disorder, a physician should give which advice?

Don't take drugs that increase dopamine levels because they can produce manic-like behavior

Which of the following is true of OCD

disorder tends to begin in adolescence or early adulthood, but is not uncommon in children

depression during adolescence

Can effect a person into young adulthood

The fact that dirt and contamination were threats to our ancestors suggest

that preparedness theory may help explain OCD

Most people with OCD

experience both obsessions and compulsions

Panic disorder is best described as a _________ condition


which of the following provides evidence against a role for inherited factors in development of phobias?

Impact of nonshared environmental factors

Which is not a common type of obsession seen in OCD?

fear of discrimination

If a pharmaceutical company were looking for a drug that would maximally treat GAD, they would want one that

Increased GABA levels while regulating serotonin

The effectiveness of Valium in treating GAD supports hypothesis that

A GABA deficiency underlies GAD

A relationship between depression and marital violence

is well-established, as is the contributory role of depressive symptoms in both participants

Which is true?

Most first time episodes of depression are preceded by a very stressful life event but that is not as true for recurrent episodes

Which would eliminate a potential diagnosis for cyclothymia?

Carol was absolutely convinced her mother wanted to kill her, although there was no evidence for this

Cross-cultural studies of mood disorders are made difficult due to

differences in diagnostic practices

_______ was once thought to be a fear of crowded places, but now is seen as a complication of having panic attacks in public


According to the behavioral viewpoint, compulsions are repeated ecause

they serve to reduce anxiety

which is true about suicide

about half of people who complete suicide do so during or in the recovery phase of a depressive episode

Lauren is phobic of birds. Her therapist shows her how to approach birds in a cage. Then the bird is taken out, petted, and fed. Therapist then encourages Lauren to do the same. This is

participant modeling

The prognosis for bipolar disorder is

guarded, most people continue to have some symptoms

an individual with a high stress tolerance

can function well in the face of a high level of stress

The Life Event and Difficulty Schedule

Includes cognitive factors in its examination of the impact of life events

Which of the following is a characteristic of an adjustment disorder?

symptoms may lessen when the individual has learned to cope

choosing between two equally attractive alternatives is

double approach

which of the following is likely to maintain or strengthen fears over time

overestimating the likelihood that the event will reoccur

which are amongst most common obsessive thoughts in people with OCD?

fear of contamination and fear of harming other

which of the following would be expected during the first phase of personality decompensation

Julia struggled to control her emotions


May develop in the recovery stage of "disaster syndrome"

Adjustment disorder

occurs within 6 months of a stressor

The fight or flight response

involves activation of the sympathetic nervous system

Which of the following would be an example of direct therapeutic exposure?

Mandy visited the accident site

In DSM-IV-TR, psychosocial stressors are

specified on Axis IV

Which is a criticism of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale

It places too much emphasis on the role of cognitive factors

Which of the following statements about Mineka, Cook, and colleagues' animal studies is NOT true?

Observationally conditioned fear response were acquired quickly, but did not last more than a day or two

James began having panic attacks immediately after his mother died suddenly. Then, he began to fear going into public situations. Now he will not leave his apartment. What is unusual?

it is unusual for a person with severe agoraphobia to be a man

mower's two-process theory of avoidance learning provides a theoretical rationale for an effective treatment for OCD. What is the treatment?

exposure therapy with response prevention

social phobics are likely to

Attribute events in their lives to external factors

Which of the following provides a unique challenge when trying to eliminate obsessions seen in OCD?

attempting to not think about something may lead to thinking about it more

neurotic behavior

may involve exaggerated use of avoidance behaviors

which of the following is NOT one of 5 primary compulsive acts seen in people with OCD?


panic disorders are often misdianosed because

symptoms are so somatic they are treated by physicians for medical problems

Which of the following would Freud most likely say about a man with OCD?

He is fixated in the anal stage

Studies of preparedness and social phobia

Reveal that an explicit perception of threat is necessary to evoke a sympathetic response

The pituitary gland

releases hormones that regulate many bodily functions

dissociative and somatoform disorders

do not involve some obvious anxiety symptoms

All of the following involve psychological disturbances that occur in response to an identifiable experience except


prolonged stress leads to suppression of the immune system. What might explain evolution of such a seemingly flawed reaction?

such immune suppression might prevent the development of autoimmune illness

What has research on the preparedness theory of phobias found?

Acquired fear responses can be elicited with subliminal exposure to fear-relevant stimuli

Virtual reality environments

allow exposure therapy to be conducted in a simulated setting

Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of panic disorder?

uncued panic attacks

Holmes and Rahe

developed an objective tool for measure stress

Which of the following is an example of interoceptive avoidance?

mark no longer views sexually explicit films

What is the thought to explain the effectiveness of the SSRIs in treating panic disorder

they decrease noradrenergic activity

Fear or panic is a basic emotion that involves

activation of the fight or flight response

the individual with generalized social phobia

exhibits a fear of most social situations

Wendy went swimming in the ocean last week and became mildly fearful when she swallowed a lot of water. Yesterday someone told her a shark was seen in the water. Now she is petrified of going into the ocean. This illustrates

the inflation effect

Harold's panic attacks have become so severe that he has finally sought treatment. He sees a psychiatrist who writer Harold a prescription that should offer him some immediate relief. The drug is


high levels of anxiety sensitivity

are a diathesis for panic attacks

which of the following are the antidepressants most widely prescribed today for the treatment of panic attacks?


according to the fear of fear model of agoraphobia

minimal signs of sympathetic arousal come to signal more intense levels of arousal such that slight changes in autonomic activity become triggers for panic attacks

Which is false

the response an individual may have to a stressor can be easily predicted

agoraphobics are highly likely to have all of the following except

neurotic personality disorder

one way in which phobic individuals differ from nonphobics is that

phobics have a tendency to be constantly on alert for phobic stimuli

prepared fears are

fears that are especially easily acquired and/or especially resistant to extinction

it is easier to be afraid of pictures of snakes and crocodiles than mushrooms and flowers, which is evidence of

preparedness theory

fear of negative evaluation by others is a hallmark

social phobia

the most common specific social phobia is a fear of

public speaking

individuals exposed to the same types of traumatic social experiences differ as to whether they will develop a social phobia because

preexisting differences in individuals' temperament and experience

Some things seem to be consistent across all the different forms that obsessive-compulsive disorder takes. These include:

an overwhelming fear that something terrible will happen to the person or to others for which they are responsible

Amber feels anxious almost all the time. She finds herself worrying that her husband will leave her (although he has never shown any indication that he would), that she chose the wrong job, that her children might not be safe at their school and that she might get sick and leave her family in financial ruin. She calls her husband almost everyday to find out when he will be home. She complains to her physician that she is always tired by cannot sleep or relax. Amber's most likely diagnosis is

generalized anxiety disorder

Which of the following is true of obsessive-compulsive disorder?

This disorder tends to begin in adolescence or early adulthood, but is not uncommon in children

It is fairly easy to condition monkeys and humans to fear snakes but almost impossible to condition either to fear a flower. This supports the ____theory of phobias


Which of the following provides a unique challenge when trying to eliminate the obsessions seen in OCD?

attempting to not think about something may lead to thinking about it more

fear or panic is a basic emotion that involves

the activation of the "fight or flight" response

Which of the following is most characteristic of anxiety

avoidant behavior

When Charissa was young child, she stepped on a bee and was stung. Since that time, she has been terrified of flying insects and runs away if she sees any. According to the classical conditioning model, the bee was

a conditioned stimulus

Martin is afraid to fly. He knows his boss wants him to take a trip for the business. Marin feels miserable, because he wants to keep his job but cannot even imagine getting on a plane. The most likely diagnosis for Martin is

specific phobia, situation type


is a tendency to experience negative mood states

the fact that bright light may be an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder suggests that

this form of depression is produced by a malfunctioning biological clock that needs resetting

although bipolar I disorder is described as "bipolar,"

a depressed episode is not necessary for a diagnosis

a recurrent depressive episode

is preceded by one or more previous episodes

abramson revised the learned helplessness theory to suggest that

hopelessness is needed in addition to helplessness in order to produce depression

according to Hammen's stress-generation model of depression,

marital distress can lead to depression and depression can lead to marital distress

the new DSM classification which omits the concept of neurosis is an improvement because

diagnostic criteria are now based on shared, observable symptoms and are more clearly defined

which of the following is one of the seven primary types of anxiety disorders recognized in the DSM-IV-TR?

obsessive compulsive disorder

which of the following is a true statement about rapid cycling?

it is seen in 5-10 percent of those with bipolar disorder

one of the main functions that worry seems to serve in generalized anxiety disorder is

it keeps people from feeling the emotional and physiological consequences of anxiety

transcranial magnetic stimulation

is a noninvasive biological treatment for depression.

All of the following are explanations for the increased prevalence of DID EXCEPT

the increased incidence of sexual abuse

somatization disorder

involves multiple symptoms of at lease four different types

all of the following are associated with DID except


Dan's various medical complaints and hospital stays finally led him to a psychiatrist. After a thorough medical and psychological evaluation, the twenty-eighty-year-old teacher and father of two was diagnosed with both depression and somatization disorder. What is atypical about this case summary?

somatization disorder is seen much more commonly in women

Ryan has diabetes but has no trouble functioning. One day, his wife informs him that she is leaving him. Ryan suddenly develops terrible pain in his back, to the point he is unable to get out of bed. His wife agrees to stay for "a while" to take care of him. Ryan probably has

pain disorder associated with psychological factors

Which of the following is the most commonly true of the host identity in DID?

it is not the original identity

the most common quality of parents' interactions with their daughters who have eating disorders is


families of people with anorexia

exhibit tendencies towards perfectionism

which of the following characterizes most anorexia nervosa patients in Asia?

dear of stomach bleeding

after her dentist commented on the damage her practice of vomiting had caused to her teeth, Hilda realized that she had a problem. After seeing a psychiatrist, Hilda was diagnosed with anorexia, binge-eating/purging sub-type. Due to the severity of her condition, her doctor suggested that she be hospitalized. Hilda immediately entered an inpatient treatment program and embraced all aspects of the treatment regimen. What is unique about Hilda's case?

Hilda's lack of ambivalence about treatment

all of the following people have had one heart attack. Which of the following has the best chance of living longest?

Reuben, who is unmarried and has lots of close friends

T cells

are a type of leukocyte

no association has been found between nonfatal heart attacks and


what would be most helpful to a person with pain disorder

staying physically active despite the pain

which of the following has been demonstrated about the effects of psychogenic amnesias on memory

implicit memory is generally in tact

family therapy for anorexia appears to be most effective when it is used to treat


Chronic fatigue syndrome

has an unknown cause, but may have something to do with the immune system

The German man, in the study mentioned in the text, who had dissociative fugue denied that he could speak German. However, he learned German-English word pairs much faster that control words. This supports that

mainly episodic memory is lost, implicit memory stays intact

someone who binges and purges and is severely underweight is diagnosed as anorexic, not bulimic. This is because

anorexia has a much higher rate than bulimia

which of the following is true

negative emotions make an individual susceptible to disease and positive emotions seem to produce a certain immunity.

which is unique about OCD, as compared to other anxiety disorders

the incidence is about equal for men and women

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