Terms for Ch.1 and 3 along with System Theory
Terms in this set (34)
Anthropologist: Palo Alto, CA interested in communication patterns in families with individuals with schizophrenia. Double- Bind Theory- Two seemingly contradictory messages may exist on different levels and lead to confusion: " act boldly and be careful"
Psychiatrist: Started the Mental Research Institute in 1958. Influenced by Gregory Bateson's work. Focus on communication and problem solving . Supervised Bateson, Haley, Weakland, Fry , Fisch, Yalom, Watzlawickm Madanes. Contribution: Family homeostatis, Family rules, marital quid pro quo.
Started with Bateson Group and transitioned to MRI. Developed art of giving directives without the hope of insight. Editor of Family process 1961 to 1969 (first journal in the field of family therapy) . Late 1960s moved to Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic with Salvador Minuchin. Developed Strategic Family Therapy. Married to Cloe Madanes
Emphasized therapist active role to elicit change directly and indirectly, focused on symptoms and consider the family life cycle perspective. Was instructor at the Macy Conferences and met Bateson. Haley's and Weakland's work with Erickson influenced his development of paradoxical communication.
Chief of Psychiatry at Emory University. Risked violating the conventions of traditional psychotherapy by including spouse and children in therapy. Set up the 1st Conference on family therapy in 1955. Developed Experiential model called symbolic Experiential Therapy.
Psychiatrist. Formulated Bowenian Family Therapy known as most comprehensive MFT theory. Grant from National Institute of Mental Health to work with schizophrenic clients and their families.
Psychiatrist at Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute. Associates were James Framo and Gerald Zuk. Developed Contextual Family Therapy. Heart of this theory is healing human relationships through trust and commitment by considering the loyalty, fairness, and reciprocity in the relationships.
Psychiatrist. Formulated an approach based on structure called structural family therapy. Used his theory with the "urban slum families" and decreased the recidivism rate for delinquents. Famous work " Families of the Slums" (1967) Innovated training of paraprofessional family therapist in the local black community. Transformed the Philadelphia Guild Guidance Clinic.
Social Worker. Started off at MRI. Only woman among family pioneers. Focused on self-esteem, compassion and congruence of feelings. Major work was conjoint family therapy.
Work started in 1950's using group therapy as a basis for working with families. 1963 started to teach Family Therapy courses at University of Cali, Berkeley. Directed MRI in Palo Alto from 1968 to 1973.
American Association of Marriage Counselors (AAMC)
Established in 1942
(1946-1953) Assembled a group of scholars and researchers to discuss how groups of things operated in systems- gave birth to general systems theory and cybernetic systems theory. Key attenders: Wisener, Von Newman, Pitts, Rosenblueth, Bigelow, McCulloch, Bateson, Mead, von Foerster.
National Mental Health
1946. Help address needs of families after WWII
Founded in Bertalanffy (1968). Set of elements standing in interaction with one another. Each element in the system is affected by whatever happens to any other elements. Is only as strong as its weakest part. Is the sum of its parts. Ludwig von Betalanffy, biologist who attempted to explain how organisms thrive or die in accordance with their opennesss of closeness to the environment. System is the lens through which MFT view families. Major tasks for a family to maintain a balance between steadiness and change.
"Changes the type of questions therapist ask." Emphasis is on process not content. Not interested in Why rather interested in how the family functions. How the relationships maintains the problem.
Coined by Norbert Weiner(1948). Term that describes systems that regulate themselves through means of feedback loops.
How the system maintains its equilibrium, going back to its original patterns.
Morphostatis: Systems tenency toward stability, a state of dynamic equilibrium. Morphogenesis: Systems enhancing behavior that allows for growth, creativity, innovation, and change- all which are characteristic of functional systems. Either end of the continuum is dysfunctional.
Communication process within a systems that keeps behavior in check or promotes change. Negative feedback: (attenuating feedback) promotes keeping equilibrium- this can be good or bad. Positive feedback: (amplifying feedback) Promotes change in the system- this can be good or bad.
Symmetrical relationships- interaction is based on similarity of behavior one in which each partner is versatile and tries to be competent in doing necessary or needed tasks. Most successful relationships are designed this way. Complementary relationships- Family member roles are defined more rigidly, and differences are maximized. One is dominant/submissive or logical/emotional. Parallel relationships- mixture of both complementary and symmetrical, and allows for greatest variation of behavior and range of role assignment. Triad- made up of three people. Can be either pathological or healthy given the context.
Terms to systems
Subsystems- relationships within the larger system. open system- incorporates feedback. closed system- doesn't incorporate feedback. Entropy- at either end of the systems, too open or too closed, the system is tending toward maximum disorder and disintegration or allowing into much info or not enough and its survival is threatened. Negentropy- appropriate balance of openness and closedness. Equiginality- "the tendency towards a characteristic final state from different initial states and in different ways based upon dynamic interaction in an open system attaining a steady state.
Terms to Systems 2
Equipotentiality- Different end states may arrive at the same initial condition. Autopoiesis- the way the parts related, rather than the nature of the parts that generates a unity with particular properties by means of which we define that unity. Stucture- Is the sum total of interrelationships among elements of a system including membership in system the boundaries between the system and its environment. Boundaries/Rules- Unique relational patterns within a systems and its interaction.
Observable and dynamic interaction of the parts( movement, behavior, emotional expression) Some MFT theories focus on changing structure, others on changing process, others on changing both.
Exchange of information among components of a system. Fundamentally from work at MRI. Report Vs. Command- Report is the message or the content. Command State about the relationships between the people in communication.
Modes of Communication
Digital Communication- Verbal, Symbolic, use words that express thoughts, feelings, desires.
nonverbal mode combined with the observation of the context of behavior . Governed by unconscious and harder to scree unless an accomplished liar.
Relationship between digital and analog comm. Congruent when both modes are transmitting the same message. Incongruent messages: are known as "crazy making"
Communication about communication. Discussing the process.
The name of the approach (sometimes also known as symbolic experiential therapy) given to Carl Whitaker's theory of working with families.
Mental Research Institute
Created in Palo Alto in 1958 one of the oldest institutes in the United States for the training of marital and family therapists.
A family therapy originating in Italy while also emphasizing the importance of second-order change in families.
A term coined by Jay Haley to describe the therapeutic work of Milton Erickson in which extreme attention is paid to details of client symptoms and the focus is to change behavior by manipulating it and not instilling insight.
A major therapeutic approach to family therapy founded by Salvador Minuchin.
another term for Bowen family therapy. A therapeutic approach developed by Murray Bowen in which emphasis is placed on he fact that the past is active in the present.
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**Family of Origin Notes