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Chapter 12 Essentials 5th edtion

Disadvantage of a direct pumping system

dependence on electricity

Gravity pressure is adequate only when the primary water source is located more than

100 feet higher than the highest point in the water distribution system

What size should water mains be in residential areas

At least 6 inches in diameter

What size should water mains be in industrial areas

At least 8 inches

Spacing of cross connecting mains in a gridded water supply system should be

every 600 feet

What type of water main is usually the nonrising stem type

Gate valves

Which type of pressure can be measured with a pitot tube and gauge


3 methods of moving water within a system

Direct pumping

dead end hydrant

only receives water from one direction

underground water mains are made of

cast iron, ductile iron, absestos cement, steel, pvc or concrete

static pressure

pressure at a given point in the water system with no water flowing

Residual pressure

the part of the total available pressure that is not used to overcome friction or gravity while orcing water through pipes

california or frost free hydrant

Wet barrel hydrant

3 key components to a water shuttle

attack apparatus
fill apparatus
water tenders

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