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Ch. 3-6 Biology
Terms in this set (61)
The ___________ is the basic unit of life.
When viewing a specimen through a light microscope, scientists use _________ to distinguish the individual components of cells.
A typical prokaryotic cell __________________ compared to a eukaryotic cell.
smaller in size by a factor of 100
Which of these do all prokaryotes and eukaryotes share?
Which of the following is found both in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
Which of the following is NOT a component of the endomembrane system?
Which plasma membrane component can be either found on its surface or embedded in the membrane structure?
The tails of the phospholipids of the plasma membrane are composed of _____ and are _______?
fatty acid groups; hydrophobic
Water moves via osmosis _________.
from an area with a low concentration of solutes to an area with a higher one
The principal force driving movement in diffusion is __________.
Active transport must function continuously because ___________.
diffusion is constantly moving the solutes in the other direction
The study of DNA and inheritance is known as:
Why do charged molecules have difficulty crossing a phospholipid bilayer?
they are too polar
The inside of a phospholipid bilayer is known as being:
Describe why eukaryotic cells being compartmentalized can make their metabolism more
different chemical reactions can occur in isolation of each other
Which of the following does a prokaryotic cell have that an animal cell does not?
What is the major component of the plant cell wall?
Which of the following carbohydrates is used to store energy in plant cells?
Which of the following carbohydrates is used to store energy in animal cells?
Stimulation of a cell by a molecule that the cell itself makes is called _____ stimulation.
Inside which organelle are secreted proteins often usually synthesized?
Which of the following is not an example of an energy transformation?
Solar panels at work
None of these apply.
Heating up dinner in a microwave
Formation of static electricity
none of these apply
Which of the following is not true about enzymes?
They are consumed by the reactions they catalyze
Energy is stored long-term in the bonds of _____ and used short-term to perform work from a(n) _____ molecule.
The energy currency used by cells is _____.
The glucose that enters the glycolysis pathway is split into two molecules of _________.
What do the electrons added to NAD+ do?
they go to another pathway for ATP production
the movement of hydrogen ions across a mitochondrial membrane
Which of the following fermentation methods can occur in animal skeletal muscles?
lactic acid fermentation
The cholesterol synthesized by cells uses which component of the glycolytic pathway as a starting point?
Beta oxidation is ________.
the breakdown of fatty acids
What process make bread dough rise?
What process makes sure enzymes are at the optimal pH to function the best inside a cell?
Where in the eukaryotic cell does the Citric Acid cycle occur?
Excess free energy would result in an increase of_______, which would denature enzymes and other proteins, and thus destroy the cell.
heat in the cell
In glycolysis, a glucose molecule is converted into two______molecules.
_______ is defined as the ability to do work, or to create some kind of change.
A substance that helps a chemical reaction to occur is called a _______.
Anabolic processes build complex molecules out of simpler ones and require ________.
_________ is the first step in the breakdown of glucose to extract energy for cell metabolism.
________ is used to generate 90 percent of the ATP made during aerobic glucose catabolism.
From where does a heterotroph directly obtain its energy?
eating other organisms
What two products result from photosynthesis?
glucose and oxygen
Which statement about thylakoids in eukaryotes is not correct?
thylakoids exist as a maze of folded membranes
What is the energy of a photon first used to do in photosynthesis?
energize an electron
Which molecule absorbs the energy of a photon in photosynthesis?
Plants produce oxygen when they photosynthesize. Where does the oxygen come from?
splitting water molecules
Which color(s) of light does chlorophyll a reflect?
Where in plant cells does the Calvin cycle take place?
Which statement correctly describes carbon fixation?
the conversion of CO2 to an organic compound
What is the molecule that leaves the Calvin cycle to be converted into glucose?
A diploid cell has ________ the number of chromosomes as a haploid cell.
An organism's traits are determined by the specific combination of inherited ________.
Chromosomes are duplicated during what portion of the cell cycle?
Separation of the sister chromatids is a characteristic of which stage of mitosis?
The individual chromosomes become visible with a light microscope during which stage of mitosis?
What is necessary for a cell to pass the G2 checkpoint?
accurate and complete DNA replication
________ are changes to the nucleotides in a segment of DNA that codes for a protein.
A gene that codes for a positive cell cycle regulator is called a(n) ________.
Which eukaryotic cell-cycle event is missing in binary fission?
FtsZ proteins direct the formation of a ________ that will eventually form the new cell walls of the daughter cells.
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