human growth

STUDY
PLAY
1. The Swiss scientist who emphasized that infants are active learners and that early
learning is based on sensory and motor skills was:
Jean Piaget.
The first acquired adaptation that includes grabbing a bottle to suck on is in:
stage two of Piaget's sensorimotor stages.
The first two stages of sensorimotor thought involve:
the infant's own body.
During sensorimotor stage two, an infant:
begins to adapt reflexes to the environment.
The principle of object permanence is demonstrated by an infant's:
searching for a toy that has fallen from sight.
The infant's first sensorimotor activities are:
reflexes.
Objects offer various opportunities, termed by the Gibsons:
affordances.
An apparent (but not actual) drop between one surface and another is called a(n):
visual cliff.
Children all over the world usually:
follow the same sequence of language development.
According to dynamic perception, 1-year-old Diane would most prefer to look at:
a mobile spinning over her head
Babbling:
is universal.
The language acquisition device (LAD) was proposed by Chomsky to explain:
the universal inborn ability to learn language.
At birth the infant is capable of:
crying and contentment.
An infant's distress at an unfamiliar person is called:
stranger wariness.
The first recognizable emotion in an infant is:
distress.
Sigmund Freud was a(n):
psychoanalytic theorist.
Freud's second stage is called:
the anal stage.
Freud claimed that during the anal stage:
there is pleasure in stimulating and controlling the bowels.
A child fixated in the oral stage may become an adult who:
eats excessively.
The second "crisis of life," according to Erikson, is:
autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
According to traditional behaviorism, personality is:
molded by parents.
The first "crisis of life," according to Erikson, is:
trust vs. mistrust.
Freud and Erikson agree on the:
importance of early experience.
Synchrony can be best described as a:
duet.
Attachment studies find that most infants are:
securely attached.
Infants cared for in day care centers tend to be:
as securely attached to their mothers as infants cared for at home.
The average 6-year-old from a developed nation weighs between:
40-50 pounds.
Myelination:
speeds up the transmission of neural impulses.
Parents of a 5-year-old girl are likely to say:
"She isn't eating enough."
The long band of nerve fibers that connects the brain's hemispheres is:
the corpus collosum.
Impulsiveness and perseveration are the same in that they both represent:
an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex.
An example of tertiary prevention is:
making laws against hit-and-run drivers.
Primary prevention is described as:
structure situations to make injuries less likely.
Specify the preoperational characteristic:
focus on appearance
The young child's inability to grasp conservation explains his or her:
belief that an 8-oz. soup bowl holds less liquid than an 8-oz. glass.
Vygotsky's theory includes the idea of:
young children as "apprentices in thinking."
To assume that the world is unchanging is to engage in:
static reasoning
When children demonstrate centration, they:
only look at one aspect of a problem.
To find a good preschool, a parent should look for:
teachers responsive to children's needs; low teacher-child ratios
An excellent early childhood program would have:
a staff trained in early childhood education.
Low-income children are given preschool education through:
Head Start.
When do 2-year-olds typically need direct supervision?
They need supervision almost every waking moment.
In Erikson's third psychosocial stage, a child:
eagerly takes on new tasks.
Emotional regulation develops due to:
both brain changes and learning.
Authoritarian parents:
seem aloof from their children.
When parents expect unquestioning obedience from their children, their parenting
pattern is:
authoritarian.
Identify the parenting style(s) high on warmth:
authoritative and permissive.
Freud believed that preschool boys:
secretly want to replace their fathers.
The Electra complex causes girls to:
adore their father and resent their mother
According to behaviorist theorists, parents are:
models for behavior.