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1. The Swiss scientist who emphasized that infants are active learners and that early
learning is based on sensory and motor skills was:

Jean Piaget.

The first acquired adaptation that includes grabbing a bottle to suck on is in:

stage two of Piaget's sensorimotor stages.

The first two stages of sensorimotor thought involve:

the infant's own body.

During sensorimotor stage two, an infant:

begins to adapt reflexes to the environment.

The principle of object permanence is demonstrated by an infant's:

searching for a toy that has fallen from sight.

The infant's first sensorimotor activities are:


Objects offer various opportunities, termed by the Gibsons:


An apparent (but not actual) drop between one surface and another is called a(n):

visual cliff.

Children all over the world usually:

follow the same sequence of language development.

According to dynamic perception, 1-year-old Diane would most prefer to look at:

a mobile spinning over her head


is universal.

The language acquisition device (LAD) was proposed by Chomsky to explain:

the universal inborn ability to learn language.

At birth the infant is capable of:

crying and contentment.

An infant's distress at an unfamiliar person is called:

stranger wariness.

The first recognizable emotion in an infant is:


Sigmund Freud was a(n):

psychoanalytic theorist.

Freud's second stage is called:

the anal stage.

Freud claimed that during the anal stage:

there is pleasure in stimulating and controlling the bowels.

A child fixated in the oral stage may become an adult who:

eats excessively.

The second "crisis of life," according to Erikson, is:

autonomy vs. shame and doubt.

According to traditional behaviorism, personality is:

molded by parents.

The first "crisis of life," according to Erikson, is:

trust vs. mistrust.

Freud and Erikson agree on the:

importance of early experience.

Synchrony can be best described as a:


Attachment studies find that most infants are:

securely attached.

Infants cared for in day care centers tend to be:

as securely attached to their mothers as infants cared for at home.

The average 6-year-old from a developed nation weighs between:

40-50 pounds.


speeds up the transmission of neural impulses.

Parents of a 5-year-old girl are likely to say:

"She isn't eating enough."

The long band of nerve fibers that connects the brain's hemispheres is:

the corpus collosum.

Impulsiveness and perseveration are the same in that they both represent:

an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex.

An example of tertiary prevention is:

making laws against hit-and-run drivers.

Primary prevention is described as:

structure situations to make injuries less likely.

Specify the preoperational characteristic:

focus on appearance

The young child's inability to grasp conservation explains his or her:

belief that an 8-oz. soup bowl holds less liquid than an 8-oz. glass.

Vygotsky's theory includes the idea of:

young children as "apprentices in thinking."

To assume that the world is unchanging is to engage in:

static reasoning

When children demonstrate centration, they:

only look at one aspect of a problem.

To find a good preschool, a parent should look for:

teachers responsive to children's needs; low teacher-child ratios

An excellent early childhood program would have:

a staff trained in early childhood education.

Low-income children are given preschool education through:

Head Start.

When do 2-year-olds typically need direct supervision?

They need supervision almost every waking moment.

In Erikson's third psychosocial stage, a child:

eagerly takes on new tasks.

Emotional regulation develops due to:

both brain changes and learning.

Authoritarian parents:

seem aloof from their children.

When parents expect unquestioning obedience from their children, their parenting
pattern is:


Identify the parenting style(s) high on warmth:

authoritative and permissive.

Freud believed that preschool boys:

secretly want to replace their fathers.

The Electra complex causes girls to:

adore their father and resent their mother

According to behaviorist theorists, parents are:

models for behavior.

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