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Gram + Facultative Cocci

Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus

Staphylococcus aureus

Boils, Impetigo, Cellulitis, Osteomyelitis, Septic Arthritis, Necrotizing Pneumonia, Endocarditis, Sepsis, Gastroenteritis, Toxic Shock Syndrome, Scalded Skin Syndrome

Catalase +

Staphylococcus NOT Streptococcus

Coagulase +

Staph. epidermidis NOT Staph. saprophyticus

Staphylococcus epidermidis

Prosthetic infections (forms biofilm), Capsule

Staphylococcus saprophyticus

UTI, Gram +, Pyogenic Infections only, NO exotoxins

Lancefield Groups A-U


Strep. pyogenes

M protein (Group A), Pharyngitis, Impetigo, Erisypelas, Pneumonia, Cellulitis, Rheumatic Fever, Glomerulonephritis, Scarlet Fever, Toxic Shock Syndrome, Necrotizing Fasciitis

Strep. pneumoniae

Meningitis, Acute Pneumonia, Otitis media, Capsule

Otitis media*

Strep. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae

Strep. mutans

Viridans group, Dental Caries, Endocarditis, Bacteremia


Group B, Meningitis, Pneumonia, Bateremia in neonates

Strep bovis

Nosocomial UTIs, Enocarditis

Enterococcus faecalis and faecium

Colon, Nosocomial, UTIs, Bacteremia, Wound Infections, Endocarditis

Gram + Bacilli

Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Listeria

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Diptheria (pseudomembrane), AB toxin interrupts EF-2, DPT vaccine



Bacillus anthracis

Anthrax, Soil, Non-motile, Tissue damage and Edema

Bacillus cereus

Food Poisoning, Emetic and Diarrheal forms

Bacillus subtilis

Opportunistic Infection

Listeria monocytogenes

Intracellular Pathogen, Motile, NO spores, Meningitis in immunocompromised, Abortions, Bacteremia and Endocarditis

Clostridium perfringens

Gas gangrene (war wounds), Food poisoning, Hyperbaric treatment

Clostridium botulinum

Toxin blocks release of transmitters into synapse, Flaccid paralysis, Floppy Baby Syndrome

Clostridium tetani

Anaerobic, Toxin releases inhibitory transmitters at synapse, Contraction

Clostridium difficile

Antibiotic-associated diarrheas, Nosocomial, Exotoxin, Pseudomembranous exudates

Gram - Cocci

Neisseria, Moraxella, Acinetobacter

Neisseria gonorrheae

LPS (Fever and Shock), Pilli bind mucosal surfaces, Urethritis, Cervicitis, Proctitis, Pharyngitis, Conjunctivitis, Pyogenic Infection, Septic Arthritis, most women asymptomatic

Neisseria meningitidis

LOS, Capsule, Meningitis in Neonates and dorms, pneumonia, arthritis

Moraxella catarrhalis

Bronchitis, Sinusitis, Otitis media, Bronchopneumonia


Pneumonia, Sepsis, UTIs, NOSOCOMIAL


Facultative anaerobes, Ferment glucose, Oxidase negative, Colon, Endotoxin, Gram -

Escherichia coli

most abundant facultative anaerobe, ferments lactose, OHK antigens, UT Bladder and Kidney Infections, Septicemia, Pneumonia, Meningitis, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Hemolytic Urea Syndrome


Bacteria in Blood

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)

inflammatory response to infection; results in sepsis

Septic Shock

Sepsis with development of hypotension

Refractory Septic Shock

Hypotension of sepsis not pharmacologically treatable

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

body's attempt to isolate toxin

Septic Shock Activators

LOS, Lipoproteins, teichoic acid and peptidoglycan (gram + cell wall components)

Enterotoxigenic E. coli

Montezuma's revenge and infant diarrhea, Heat Labile toxin (Hypersecretion of Electrolytes)

Enteropathogenic E. coli

Infant diarrhea (at birth), alter microvilli, watery diarrhea

Enterohemorrhagic E coli

O157:H7, Hemorrhagic colitis, verotoxin =>Shiga toxin, bloody diarrhea, Zoonotic origins

Enteroinvasive E. coli

Epithelial of large intestine, dysentery


produce H2S, Multiple flagella, intracellular parasite, Endotoxin

Salmonella enterica

Gasteroenteritis, Nausea, Diarrhea, Vomiting, 1500 serotypes

Salmonella typhi

Typhoid fever=>bacteremia, fever, 1 serotype


Bloody diarrhea with mucous, abdominal cramping, ID 50 >100

Vibrio cholerae

rice-water stool, massive fluid and electrolyte loss, Toxin activates adenylate cylcase increasing cAMP

Vibrio parahaemolyticus

diarrhea after eating shellfish

Heliobacter pylori

gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastritis, stomach cancer risk, urease

Camphylobacter jejuni

urease negative, enterocolitis (foul smelling water stool, bloody stool, abdominal pain, fever), unpasteurized milk

Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter, Serratia marsescens

Nosocomial pathogens, UTIs, pneumonia, thick, bloody sputum (one species)

Proteus vulgaris and mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, Morganelli morganii

UTIs, urease +, highly motile

Pseudomona aeruginosa

Aerobe, NO glucose fermentation, Oxidase +, fruity color, motile, Nosocomial UTIs , pneumonia, grows in water, infects burns and wounds, infections of skin, eye and otitis externa

Bacteroides fragilis

Anaerobic, Non-spore forming, Colon, Intra-abdominal infections

Haemophilus influenzae

endotoxin and capsule, Otitis media, Sinusitis, Bronchitis and pneumonia, Meningitis, and Epiglottitis

Legionella pneumophila

Facultative aerobe, intracellular parasite, Legionairre's disease, inhalation of water vapor, Atypical pneumonia

Bordetella pertussis

Whooping cough, Major toxin, Kills ciliated cells


Undulant fever, Endotoxin

Francisella tularensis

Tularemia, ID 50 = 10, Rabbits, deer, rodents, Ulceration, Granulomas

Pasteurella multocida

Dog and cat bites, spreading cellulitis

Bartonella henselae

Facultative, intracellular gram - rod, Cat bites and scratches, Lymphadenopathy, Fever, Vascular Lesions (Kaposi's Sarcoma)

Yersinia pestis

Buboes, flea vomit, Septic shock, Vascular necrosis, Purulent pneumonia

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Atypical pneumonia, bronchitis, gradual onset of cough

Chlamydophia psittaci

pneumonia, bird feces

Chlamydophila trachomatis

urethritis, cervicitis, salpingitis (PID), prostatitis, proctitis, clear/watery discharge,lymphogranuloma venereum (genital lesions), trachoma (eye infection - leading cause of blindness), Intracellular (Cell lysis to release bacteria)

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Lower respiratory tract infection w/ headache, fever, and cough, Atypical pneumonia, necrosis of epithelium

Mycoplasma hominis

PID (infrequently)

Ureaplasma urealyticum

non-gonococcal urethritis


No cell wall, cholesterol (from host cell)


microorganisms that initiate and spread disease


ability of microorganism to remain at a particular site and multiply


colonization of host, may lead to pathogenesis


the relative severity of pathogenesis

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