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Microbiology Quiz 1

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Gram + Facultative Cocci
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus
Staphylococcus aureus
Boils, Impetigo, Cellulitis, Osteomyelitis, Septic Arthritis, Necrotizing Pneumonia, Endocarditis, Sepsis, Gastroenteritis, Toxic Shock Syndrome, Scalded Skin Syndrome
Catalase +
Staphylococcus NOT Streptococcus
Coagulase +
Staph. epidermidis NOT Staph. saprophyticus
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Prosthetic infections (forms biofilm), Capsule
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
UTI, Gram +, Pyogenic Infections only, NO exotoxins
Lancefield Groups A-U
Streptococcus
Strep. pyogenes
M protein (Group A), Pharyngitis, Impetigo, Erisypelas, Pneumonia, Cellulitis, Rheumatic Fever, Glomerulonephritis, Scarlet Fever, Toxic Shock Syndrome, Necrotizing Fasciitis
Strep. pneumoniae
Meningitis, Acute Pneumonia, Otitis media, Capsule
Otitis media*
Strep. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae
Strep. mutans
Viridans group, Dental Caries, Endocarditis, Bacteremia
Strep.agalactiae
Group B, Meningitis, Pneumonia, Bateremia in neonates
Strep bovis
Nosocomial UTIs, Enocarditis
Enterococcus faecalis and faecium
Colon, Nosocomial, UTIs, Bacteremia, Wound Infections, Endocarditis
Gram + Bacilli
Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Listeria
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Diptheria (pseudomembrane), AB toxin interrupts EF-2, DPT vaccine
Bacillus
Endospores
Bacillus anthracis
Anthrax, Soil, Non-motile, Tissue damage and Edema
Bacillus cereus
Food Poisoning, Emetic and Diarrheal forms
Bacillus subtilis
Opportunistic Infection
Listeria monocytogenes
Intracellular Pathogen, Motile, NO spores, Meningitis in immunocompromised, Abortions, Bacteremia and Endocarditis
Clostridium perfringens
Gas gangrene (war wounds), Food poisoning, Hyperbaric treatment
Clostridium botulinum
Toxin blocks release of transmitters into synapse, Flaccid paralysis, Floppy Baby Syndrome
Clostridium tetani
Anaerobic, Toxin releases inhibitory transmitters at synapse, Contraction
Clostridium difficile
Antibiotic-associated diarrheas, Nosocomial, Exotoxin, Pseudomembranous exudates
Gram - Cocci
Neisseria, Moraxella, Acinetobacter
Neisseria gonorrheae
LPS (Fever and Shock), Pilli bind mucosal surfaces, Urethritis, Cervicitis, Proctitis, Pharyngitis, Conjunctivitis, Pyogenic Infection, Septic Arthritis, most women asymptomatic
Neisseria meningitidis
LOS, Capsule, Meningitis in Neonates and dorms, pneumonia, arthritis
Moraxella catarrhalis
Bronchitis, Sinusitis, Otitis media, Bronchopneumonia
Acinetobacter
Pneumonia, Sepsis, UTIs, NOSOCOMIAL
Enterobacteriaceae
Facultative anaerobes, Ferment glucose, Oxidase negative, Colon, Endotoxin, Gram -
Escherichia coli
most abundant facultative anaerobe, ferments lactose, OHK antigens, UT Bladder and Kidney Infections, Septicemia, Pneumonia, Meningitis, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Hemolytic Urea Syndrome
Bacteremia
Bacteria in Blood
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)
inflammatory response to infection; results in sepsis
Septic Shock
Sepsis with development of hypotension
Refractory Septic Shock
Hypotension of sepsis not pharmacologically treatable
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
body's attempt to isolate toxin
Septic Shock Activators
LOS, Lipoproteins, teichoic acid and peptidoglycan (gram + cell wall components)
Enterotoxigenic E. coli
Montezuma's revenge and infant diarrhea, Heat Labile toxin (Hypersecretion of Electrolytes)
Enteropathogenic E. coli
Infant diarrhea (at birth), alter microvilli, watery diarrhea
Enterohemorrhagic E coli
O157:H7, Hemorrhagic colitis, verotoxin =>Shiga toxin, bloody diarrhea, Zoonotic origins
Enteroinvasive E. coli
Epithelial of large intestine, dysentery
Salmonella
produce H2S, Multiple flagella, intracellular parasite, Endotoxin
Salmonella enterica
Gasteroenteritis, Nausea, Diarrhea, Vomiting, 1500 serotypes
Salmonella typhi
Typhoid fever=>bacteremia, fever, 1 serotype
Shigella
Bloody diarrhea with mucous, abdominal cramping, ID 50 >100
Vibrio cholerae
rice-water stool, massive fluid and electrolyte loss, Toxin activates adenylate cylcase increasing cAMP
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
diarrhea after eating shellfish
Heliobacter pylori
gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastritis, stomach cancer risk, urease
Camphylobacter jejuni
urease negative, enterocolitis (foul smelling water stool, bloody stool, abdominal pain, fever), unpasteurized milk
Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter, Serratia marsescens
Nosocomial pathogens, UTIs, pneumonia, thick, bloody sputum (one species)
Proteus vulgaris and mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, Morganelli morganii
UTIs, urease +, highly motile
Pseudomona aeruginosa
Aerobe, NO glucose fermentation, Oxidase +, fruity color, motile, Nosocomial UTIs , pneumonia, grows in water, infects burns and wounds, infections of skin, eye and otitis externa
Bacteroides fragilis
Anaerobic, Non-spore forming, Colon, Intra-abdominal infections
Haemophilus influenzae
endotoxin and capsule, Otitis media, Sinusitis, Bronchitis and pneumonia, Meningitis, and Epiglottitis
Legionella pneumophila
Facultative aerobe, intracellular parasite, Legionairre's disease, inhalation of water vapor, Atypical pneumonia
Bordetella pertussis
Whooping cough, Major toxin, Kills ciliated cells
Brucella
Undulant fever, Endotoxin
Francisella tularensis
Tularemia, ID 50 = 10, Rabbits, deer, rodents, Ulceration, Granulomas
Pasteurella multocida
Dog and cat bites, spreading cellulitis
Bartonella henselae
Facultative, intracellular gram - rod, Cat bites and scratches, Lymphadenopathy, Fever, Vascular Lesions (Kaposi's Sarcoma)
Yersinia pestis
Buboes, flea vomit, Septic shock, Vascular necrosis, Purulent pneumonia
Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Atypical pneumonia, bronchitis, gradual onset of cough
Chlamydophia psittaci
pneumonia, bird feces
Chlamydophila trachomatis
urethritis, cervicitis, salpingitis (PID), prostatitis, proctitis, clear/watery discharge,lymphogranuloma venereum (genital lesions), trachoma (eye infection - leading cause of blindness), Intracellular (Cell lysis to release bacteria)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Lower respiratory tract infection w/ headache, fever, and cough, Atypical pneumonia, necrosis of epithelium
Mycoplasma hominis
PID (infrequently)
Ureaplasma urealyticum
non-gonococcal urethritis
Mycoplasma
No cell wall, cholesterol (from host cell)
pathogens
microorganisms that initiate and spread disease
colonization
ability of microorganism to remain at a particular site and multiply
infection
colonization of host, may lead to pathogenesis
virulence
the relative severity of pathogenesis