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4th Grade SCIENCE: Chapter Four
Terms in this set (50)
The breaking down of rocks is called
This defines when things such as wind and rain break rocks down
When outer layers of rock peel off like the layers of an onion it is called
The wearing away of rock by blowing sand is called
A rock can break down when minerals in the rock are changed chemically in a process called
Things with iron can __ and break down, when the iron mixes with oxygen.
Decayed plant or animal material is known as
Over time, layers of soil called __ form, each with its own properties.
These cause the Earth's rocks to break apart into smaller pieces
physical and chemical weathering
This has weathered rock, minerals, humus, air, water and bacteria in it.
The transport of weathered rock is called
This is the biggest cause of erosion
The dropping off of weathered rock is called
As wind and water move rock from one place to another, the shape of the __ changes.
Thousands of American farmers were forced to move west in search of a new life due to this devastating event named the
The Dust Bowl taught people that it was important to __ soil.
Conserving soil means using methods to save it and slow __.
__ farming helps to keep soil from eroding
Erosion and __ happen sediments move from one place on Earth's surface to another
Erosion is affected by soil type, sediment size, and wind and __ strength
Huge, flat stretches of land without any hills or mountains are called
These are the natural features on Earth's surface
A deep, narrow valley with steep sides
Changes to land are due to weathering, erosion, and __
High in the mountains, rain falls and snow melts. The water begins its journey downhill. The water forms small
As small streams of water come together down a mountain, they form small __.
As rivers journey down a mountain, they cut away land along their sides and carry away sediments. This cutting away of land forms a __.
River sediments form an area of land called a __.
High in the mountains melting snow and rainwater flow
Sediments are deposited at the mouth of the river. These sediments form an area of land called a __.
long, narrow strips of land formed by deposits of sand that run parallel to the coast
These form a barrier between coasts and oceans, and protect coastlines from erosion
Barrier islands are constantly reshaped by these __
Hills of sand blown by wind are called __.
Sand dunes are formed by particles of sand that are picked up by the __.
There are different kinds of sand dunes, and each kind has a different __.
On colder parts of Earth, large, thick sheets of ice called __ slowly creep over the land.
Glaciers are formed in cold areas where more __ falls than can melt.
Erosion and weathering are processes that usually change __ slowly.
Water, waves, and __ weather and erode Earth's surface.
A U-shaped valley is formed by a __.
Mountain streams form
As water continues to move downhill off a mountain, the land becomes __.
When a river erodes land on one side and deposits sediments along the other side, this causes the river to develop
Water from rain or melted snow enters small cracks in rocks. If the water freezes, it __, or takes up more space.
Over time, repeated freezing and thawing __ rocks apart.
A plant's roots can force their way through small cracks in rock. As roots grow larger, they can cause cracks to widen, and the rocks to __ apart.
Physical weathering causes rocks to change size and shape, but not the __ they are made of.
This forms when carbon dioxide combines with rainwater
It can take thousands of years for weathering to break down rocks to form this
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