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all the jeopardy questions used in class. 9/22/2011 Reverse Jeopardy Game Template created by Rita Al-Abdullah, Laura Bush, and Jennifer Santos. Spring 2004, Arizona State University. May be used or adapted for educational use if properly credited

Examples of these Fluids include:
- Cerebrospinal
- Pancreatic
- Pleural
- Synovial

What are transcellular fluids?

*Found in the skeleton and intracellular fluid
*2nd most abundant cation
*Normal serum levels are 1.5-2.5 mEq/L
*Necessary for protein DNA synthesis
*Found in grains, nuts, dried fruits, legumes and green leafy vegetables

What is Magnesium?

-This fluid loss occurs through the skin and the lungs
-It is usually not detectable and cannot be measured
-Normally accounts for 300-400mL of fluid loss/day

What is insensible losses?

-Total serum calcium of over 10.5mg/dL
-May be due to prolonged immobilization
-s/s of lethargy, weakness, anorexia, n/v, constipation, depressed tendon reflexes, polyuria

What is hypercalcemia?

Abnormal labs related to Respiratory Alkalosis

What is a pH greater than 7.45
PaCO2 < 35?

The Movement of water across cell membranes from the less concentrated to the more concentrated solution

What is Osmosis

-Most abundant cation in the extracellular fluid
-It is found in most body secretions
-Usually accompanies any water imbalances

What is sodium Na+?

-Primary regulator of fluid intake
-Located in the hypothalamus of the brain
-Osmotic pressure and vascular volume and angiotensin trigger it.

What is the thirst mechanism?

-Water is drawn out of the vascular compartment into interstitial tissues and cells
-Lethargy, confusion, weakness
-Muscle twitching, cramping
-Headache seizures, coma

What is hyponatremia?

Normal serum levels are 135-145 mEq/L

What is Sodium (Na+)?

-Insensible loss
-Loss through the skin
-Loss through feces

What are fluid Losses?

-Major cation in intracellular fluid
-Vital electrolyted for skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle activity
-Involved in maintaining acid/base balance
-Normal levels are 3.5-5 mEq/L

What is potassium?

-Body retains both water and sodium
-Edema may be present
-Weight gain
-Fluid intake greater than output

What is fluid volume excess (FVE) or hypervolemia?

-Cardiac dysrhythmias
-Muscle weakness, cramps
-Anorexia, n/v
-Fatigue, lethargy
-Weak, irregular pulses
-Serum levels below 3.5

What is hypokalemia?

-Normal total serum levels 8.5-10.5mg/dL or
-Normal ionized serum levels 4-5 mg/dL

What is normal Calcium levels?

2,300 to 2,600 mL

What is average daily fluid output for an adult?

-Avocados, carrots, spinach, tomato, potato
-Dried fruits, bananas, apricot, orange, cantaloupe
-Beef, cod, pork, veal
-Milk, orange juice, apricot nectar

What are foods high in potassium?

-Water is drawn into the vascular compartment from the interstitial cells
-May be due to decreased thirst mechanism, hyperventilation, fever or insufficient water intake

What is dehydration or fluid volume deficit (FVE)?

-Dry, sticky membranes
-Red, dry, swollen tongue
-Serum levels over 145mEq/L

What are s/s of hypernatremia?

Normal serum levels of
3.5-5 mEq/L

What is Potassium (K+)?



-Bicarbonate exceeds the normal 20:1 ratio
-May be caused by ingestion of too many antacids
-Happens after prolonged vomiting
-Respirations are slow and shallow

What is metabolic alkalosis?

-Uses the interview process to obtain client information
-Current and past medical problems are assessed
-Identifies risk factors
-Elicits data about the client's food & fluid intake and output

What is a nursing (or patient) history?

-Acute lung conditions the impair alveolar gas exchange
-Overdose of narcotics or sedatives
-Chronic lung disease
-Airway obstruction
-Mechanical chest injury

What are risk factors for respiratory acidosis?

-Monitor intake and output closely
-Treat underlying problem
-Monitor vital signs, especially respirations and LOC
-Administer ordered IV fluids carefully

What are interventions for metabolic acidosis?

-pH <7.35
-CO2 >45
-HCO3 normal or slightly elevated

What is respiratory acidosis?

-Often results from hyperventilation
-May also be caused by fever and respiratory infections
-Complains of SOB, numbness & tingling of extremities
-Light-headedness & blurred vision

What is respiratory alkalosis?

-Examining the skin, oral cavity, mucous membranes
-Skin turgor check
-Cardiovascular and respiratory status
-Neurological and muscular status

What is a physical assessment?

-Renal impairment
-Diabetes mellitus
-Prolonged diarrhea
-Cardiac arrest
-Excessive ingestion of acids or salicylates

What is risk factors metabolic acidosis?

-Monitor airway and ventilation
-Administer pulmonary therapy if ordered
-Monitor fluid intake/output, vitals, ABG's
-Administer narcotic antagonists
-Frequently assess respiratory status and lung sounds
-Maintain adequate hydration

What is are nursing interventions for Respiratory Acidosis?

-pH >7.45
-CO2 <35 mmHg

What are ABG results in Respiratory alkalosis?

-Bicarbonate levels are low
-May develop in renal failure, starvation or diabetic ketoacidosis
-Headache, weakness, lethargy confusion
-Deep, rapid respirations
-Nausea and vomiting

What is metabolic acidosis?

-Measures the solute concentration of the blood
-Evaluates fluid balance
-Includes sodium, glucose and urea measurements
-Normal values are 280-300mOsm/kg

What is Serum osmolarity?

-Vomiting, gastric suction
-↑ use of K+ wasting diuretics
-Excessive bicarbonate intake
-Cushing's syndrome

What are risk factors for Metabolic alkalosis?

-Monitor ABG values, I & O and LOC
-Treat underlying problem as ordered
-Administer sodium bicarbonate carefully if ordered

What are nursing interventions for metabolic acidosis?

-PaCo2 > 45
-HCO3 >26

What is metabolic alkalosis?

-Hypoventilation and carbon dioxide retention can cause this
-Asthma and COPD are common causes
-Anesthesia or narcotic overdose can cause this also

What is respiratory acidosis?

-Daily weights
-Vital signs
-Fluid intake and output monitoring and recording

What are clinical measurements the nurse should do in her daily assessment?

-Brain stem injury
-Hyperventilation due to:
*↑ body temp, ↑BMR

What are risk factors for respiratory alkalosis?

-Monitor vital signs, ABG's
-Assist client to breath more slowly
-Help client breath in a paper bag
-Apply a re-breather mask

What are nursing interventions for respiratory alkalosis?

-pH <7.35
-CO2 < 38 mmHg
-HCO3 < 22

What is metabolic acidosis?



-This organ is the long-term regulator of acid-base balances
-Slower to respond
-But the response is more permanent and selective

The Kidneys!

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