situated at the anterior part of the base of the cranium, between the two orbits, at the roof of the nose, and contributes to each of these cavities.
The dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones except at the joints and serving as an attachment for muscles and tendons.
Enlarged terminal part of the bone, farthest from the center of the body, made of spongy tissue and articulating with neighboring bones.
Cortical bone, synonymous with compact bone, is one of the two types of osseous tissue that form bones. Sheath around osteons.
Cancellous bone, synonymous with trabecular bone or spongy bone, is one of two types of osseous tissue that form bones. Osteons etc.
The Lacunae are situated between the lamella, and consist of a number of oblong spaces. Each lacuna is occupied during life by a branched cell, termed an osteocyte, bone-cell or bone-corpuscle. Lacunae are connected to one another by small canals called canaliculi. A lacuna never contains more than one osteocyte.
the basic unit of structure of compact bone, comprising a haversian canal and its concentrically arranged lamellae
central (Haversian) canal
Any of the tiny, interconnecting, longitudinal channels in bone tissue through which blood vessels, nerve fibers, and lymphatics pass.
Lamellae are the layers that form concentric rings within the Haversian systems that make up bone tissue.
perforating (Volkmann's) canal
microscopic structures found in compact bone. They run within the osteons which are perpendicular to the Haversian canals, interconnecting the latter with each other and the periosteum
long narrow depression occurring naturally on the surface of an organism or an anatomical part
butterfly shaped bone. sella turcica depression for pituitary gland contains sphenoid sinuses
2 bones fuse to form maxilla. Aka mustache bone b/c of shape, located above mandible and below orbits.
the temporal bone is attached to the parietal bone on the side of the head with the squamous suture
7 neck vertebrae: bones of top of spinal column: atlas, axis, dens, transverse foramen
5 spinal column bones below thoracic, above sacral: lumbar vertebrae, lack costal facets
Structure of vertebrae
body, pedicle, lamina, spinous process, vertebral foramen, transverse process, articular facets
posterior portion of the vertebral arch: the part of the neural arch of a vertebra extending from the pedicle to the median line
transverse process of vertebra
a process that projects on the dorsolateral aspect of each side of the neural arch of a vertebra
-The Skin-Waterproof-Cushions and protects body from injury-Regulates body temperature, touch, and pain
-Made of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints-Provides support for the body-Attaches to muscles for movement-Protects inner organs (heart, lungs, brain)-Makes blood cells-Stores minerals (calcium, phosphorus)
-Provides movement through muscle contractions-3 types of muscle: Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac-Skeletal muscle is found on the skeleton-Smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and internal organs.-Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart
-Body's control system-Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs-Senses send messages along nerves to brain-Brain sends message to muscles, glands, and organs
-Set of glands that release hormones
-Growth, reproduction, and food use are all regulated by hormones
-The heart, blood, and blood vessels-Blood transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to the body-Heart is the pump
-Spleen, tonsils, and lymph nodes
-Helps clean blood and return blood to blood vessels
-Keeps body supplied with oxygen and removes CO2
-Includes airway from nose to lungs
-A tube that runs from mouth to anus
-Includes mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus
-Breaks down food to distribute nutrients to blood to deliver them to all cells
-Produces reproductive cells
-Sperm is the male reproductive cell
-The egg or ova is the female reproductive cell
-Female system contains ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, and vagina
-Male system contains testes, penis, and scrotum
The cytosol plus the organelles; everything outside of the nucleus and inside of the plasma membrane; contains materials needed by the cells
Folded tubes or membrane structures that transport materials within the cell
Golgi Bodies (Golgi Apparatus)
Flattened saclike structures that package materials created in the cell for transport outside of the cell
Bean shaped structure in the cell where cellular respiration occurs; produces energy for the cell
Oval structure that directs cell activities in eukaryotic cells; contains the genetic material (DNA) of the cell
Plasma Membrane (Cell Membrane in plants)
Fluid, semipermeable, lipid bilayer that surrounds all cells; provides support and protection; serves as a barrier between the cell and environment; controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell; helps to maintain homeostasis (biological balance)
Very small spherical structure that produces materials needed by the cell; protein synthesis
Structure that stores and transports materials inside the cell; Tend to be large in plant cells and small in animal cells
The aqueous part of the cytoplasm within which various particles and organelles are suspended
A microscopic network of protein filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and and aid in movement
Membranous sacs containing enzymes used to break down hydrogen peroxide, alcohol and, other harmful substances
Perforated bilayer that surrounds the nucleus of a cell; Controls the movement of materials in and out of the nucleus
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum that has ribosomes embedded in its walls; Involved in the production of proteins
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum that does not have ribosomes embedded in its walls; Depending on the type of cell, it might be involved in lipid syhtnesis, detoxification, or calcium storage
tiny "Fingerlike" projections that generally increase the cell's surface area for absorption
Simple squamous epithelium
single layer of very flat, scale-like cells; thin; nuclei visible along the border of the connective tissue; barrier to separate compartments of the body; allows for filtration & diffusion; lines alveoli of the lungs; found in glomerulus of the kidneys; lines capillaries; lines outside of many organs & cavities; "may be called mesothelium or endothelium depending upon location"
Simple cuboidal epithelium
single layer of square cells; can form an impermeable tube to move materials; forms most of the tubular system in the kidneys & plays an important role in urine formation, "forms the thyroid & ducts of many glands"
Simple columnar epithelium
single layer of rectangular cells; lines smaller airways (cilia); "forms the lining of the digestive system (mocrovilli & goblet cells)"
special feature of simple columnar epithelium; hair-like structures that extend from the surface of the cell; help move materials over the surface of the epithelium
special feature of simple columnar epithelium; single-celled mucous producing glands; mucous used to lubricate & protect the epithelial surface
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
most contain cilia & goblet cells; nuclei appear to be at different levels (false sense of multiple layers); can be found in the tubing of the reproductive system and "lines the major airways (trachea & bronchi)"
Stratified squamous epithelium
multiple layers of cells; cells near the basement membrane are cuboidal; cells near the tissue surface are flat & scale-like; very strong & durable; "forms the outer layer (epidermis) of the skin" & mucous membranes (moist entrances to mouth, urethra, vagina, anus, etc.
no duct leading out of the gland to deliver the secretion ~ blood delivers the secretion; produce hormones
generally found beneath the epithelium; bind, support & unite the body; cells widely spaced; matrix between cells; highly vascular; "fills in the spaces underneath epithelia"
surface tissues that cover & line body surfaces; protect from outside environment; tightly packed cells; one surface is exposed & the other surface is anchored to the underlying connective tissue; avascular
Soft connective tissues
connective tissue proper; very pliable; areolar, adipose, dense collagenous, reticular; hyaluronic acid
fills the space between the cells of connective tissue; composed of fibers & ground substance
matrix; thick protein bands that provide strength to tissue but resist stretching; connective tissues
matrix; medium thickness; branched protein strands; RARELY found in connective tissues; very strong; fiber net to support organ cells
ground substance; soft connective tissue; watery ~ makes the connective tissue very flexible
ground substance; crystalline matrix of bone; very rigid structure ~ gives bone excellent support & protection
Areolar connective tissue
very common; located beneath nearly every epithelium; many different fibers (collagen & elastic) & cell types present
Adipose connective tissue
found beneath epithelia; forms protective cushions; chicken wire; specialized connective tissue "also known as fat"
Dense collagenous connective tissue
huge numbers of collagen fibers in matrix ~ very strong, resistant to stretching; 2 varieties: regularly arranged & irregularly arranged
Regularly arranged dense collagenous connective tissue
collagen fibers are neatly arranged in same direction; ligaments (bone to bone), tendons (muscle to bone), aponeuroses (muscle to muscle)
Irregularly arranged dense collagenous connective tissue
collagen fibers are randomly arranged in different directions; "forms joint & organ capsules"
Reticular connective tissue
branched reticular fibers; "forms the framework for organs like the liver & spleen", kidneys & lymph nodes
support connective tissue; only connective that is AVASCULAR; chondroitin sulfate is ground substance; cells within lucanae; 3 varieties
contain collagen fibers; "intervertebrel discs" of spinal column and meniscus pads in some joints
Osseous connective tissue
bone; support connective tissue; calcium salt; bony, rigid part of the skeleton; sliced tree trunk, bulls eye; cell found in lucanae; "has a calcified matrix;
lacks the distinctive structure of compact bone; found on interior of the skeleton; composed of trabeculae, osteocytes in lacunae, osteon arrangement missing
contract & respond to stimuli; can be stretched; closely packed cells; found in large sheets; 3 types
striated/striped; striations caused by myofilament arrangement; have multiple nuclei; under voluntary control; "forms the muscle that is attached to bones"
present in cardiac muscle; specialized cell junctions that allow rapid transmission of information from one cell to another within the heart
muscular walls of most body organs; LACK striations; smooth ~ cells are small and spindle-shaped; involuntary muscle control; line digestive system; 2 varieties
Visceral smooth muscle
muscular walls of many abdominal and pelvic organs; cells in large sheets; interconnected ~ function together as group
Multiunit smooth muscle
muscular walls of blood vessels, internal eye structures, arrector pili muscles (hair follicles of skin); large sheets; not interconnected ~ function independently
large, star-shaped cells; send & receive electrical impulses; most distinctive cells in the nervous tissue; dark brown spots with branches coming off it
a small hook-like structure on the lateral edge of the superior anterior portion of the scapula.
posterior aspect of the scapula is smaller than the infraspinatous fossa, concave, smooth, and broader at its vertebral than at its humeral end. Its medial two-thirds give origin to the Supraspinatus.
from Greek: gléne, "socket") is a shallow pyriform, articular surface, which is located on the lateral angle of the scapula. It is directed laterally and forward and articulates with the head of the humerus; it is broader below than above and its vertical diameter is the longest: humerus socket.
spine of scapula
prominent plate of bone, which crosses obliquely the medial four-fifths of the scapula at its upper part, and separates the supra- from the infraspinatous fossa.
inferior angle of scapula
thick and rough, is formed by the union of the vertebral and axillary borders; its dorsal surface affords attachment to the Teres major and frequently to a few fibers of the Latissimus dorsi.
notch in the superior border of the scapula, just medial to the base of the coracoid process. Any mass in the suprascapular notch will affect both supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle leading to atrophy.