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228 terms

Human Anatomy and physiology 1 Lab

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ethmoid
situated at the anterior part of the base of the cranium, between the two orbits, at the roof of the nose, and contributes to each of these cavities.
Lamboid suture
Proximal epiphysis
the enlarged proximal and distal ends of a long bone.
periosteum
The dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones except at the joints and serving as an attachment for muscles and tendons.
diaphysis
the shaft of a long bone, between the epiphyses
endosteum
the tissue lining the medullary cavity of a bone
distal epiphysis
Enlarged terminal part of the bone, farthest from the center of the body, made of spongy tissue and articulating with neighboring bones.
compact bone
Cortical bone, synonymous with compact bone, is one of the two types of osseous tissue that form bones. Sheath around osteons.
metaphysis
The metaphysis is the wider portion of a long bone adjacent to the epiphyseal plate.
spongy bone
Cancellous bone, synonymous with trabecular bone or spongy bone, is one of two types of osseous tissue that form bones. Osteons etc.
lacunae
The Lacunae are situated between the lamella, and consist of a number of oblong spaces. Each lacuna is occupied during life by a branched cell, termed an osteocyte, bone-cell or bone-corpuscle. Lacunae are connected to one another by small canals called canaliculi. A lacuna never contains more than one osteocyte.
osteon
the basic unit of structure of compact bone, comprising a haversian canal and its concentrically arranged lamellae
osteocyte
A branched cell embedded in the matrix of bone tissue.
central (Haversian) canal
Any of the tiny, interconnecting, longitudinal channels in bone tissue through which blood vessels, nerve fibers, and lymphatics pass.
lamellae
Lamellae are the layers that form concentric rings within the Haversian systems that make up bone tissue.
canaliculi
canaliculus is a small channel or canal, as in bones, where they connect to lacunae.
perforating (Volkmann's) canal
microscopic structures found in compact bone. They run within the osteons which are perpendicular to the Haversian canals, interconnecting the latter with each other and the periosteum
tuberosity
Large rounded projection of bone, may be roughened
crest
narrow ridge of bone, usually prominent
trochanter
Very large blunt irregularly shaped process of the femur connecting to the hip bone
line
Narrow ridge of bone, less prominent than a crest
tubercle
small, rounded projection or process
epicondyle
raised area on or above a condyle
spine projection
sharp, slender, often pointed projection
facet
A small, smooth nearly flat surface of a bone where articulation occurs.
groove
long narrow depression occurring naturally on the surface of an organism or an anatomical part
notch
depression or opening indentation on the edge of a bone
spine
projection, sharp, slender often pointed process
tubercle
small, rounded projection
crest
narrow ridge of bone
tuberosity
large, rounded projection
head
bony expansion supported on a narrow neck of bone
ramus
armlike projection
condyle
rounded, articular projection, often articulates with a corresponding fossa
fissure
depression/opening, narrow and slit-like
meatus
depression or canal-like passageway
foramen
opening through a bone
fossa
shallow depression or opening in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
sinus
air-filled cavity, lined with mucous membrane, in a bone
trochanter
large, irregularly shaped projection
epicondyle
raised area of a condyle
process
any bony projection or prominence
frontal bone
the front cap of the skull
parietal bones
behind frontal, on either side of sagittal suture
occipital bone
below parietal on lower back of skull
temporal bones
below parietal on sides of head
zygomatic
cheek bones, on sides of maxillar
nasal
bony nasal arch
lacrimal
in eye sockets where tear ducts are
palatine
back part of the nasal cavity, roof of mouth
ethmoid
Internal bone that forms the nasal cavities, eye orbit and ethmoid sinuses, Nasal concha
sphenoid
butterfly shaped bone. sella turcica depression for pituitary gland contains sphenoid sinuses
maxilla
2 bones fuse to form maxilla. Aka mustache bone b/c of shape, located above mandible and below orbits.
mandible
lower jaw bone: Supports lower part of face and holds bottom half of the teeth in place.
vomer
base of the nasal cavity
Sutures
Coronal, squamous, sagittal, and lambdoid
coronal suture
joins the frontal bone to the two parietal bones.
squamous suture
the temporal bone is attached to the parietal bone on the side of the head with the squamous suture
sagittal suture
joins the two parietal bones together.
lambdoid suture
Connects parietals with occipital
hyoid bone
provides an anchor for tongue muscles & upper part of the front of the neck.
cervical curvature
7 neck vertebrae: bones of top of spinal column: atlas, axis, dens, transverse foramen
thoracic curvature
12 bones below cervical on spinal column: costal facets, inferior notch
lumbar curvature
5 spinal column bones below thoracic, above sacral: lumbar vertebrae, lack costal facets
sacral curvature
5 fused vertebrae: sacral promontory, body, sacrel foramina
coccyx
4 fused bones at base of spinal column
Structure of vertebrae
body, pedicle, lamina, spinous process, vertebral foramen, transverse process, articular facets
body of vertebrae
weight-bearing part of vertebrae: place where stacked
pedicle of vertebrae
neck connecting processes to body
vertebral lamina
posterior portion of the vertebral arch: the part of the neural arch of a vertebra extending from the pedicle to the median line
spinous process
centered spinelike or platelike dorsal process of the neural arch of a vertebra
vertebral foramen
the opening formed by a neural arch through which the spinal cord passes
transverse process of vertebra
a process that projects on the dorsolateral aspect of each side of the neural arch of a vertebra
articular facets
place where ribs attach to spinal column
ocular lens
eyepiece (magnifies 10x)
objective lenses
lenses of different powers (4x, 10x, and 40x)
body tube
maintains the correct distance between the ocular lens and the objectives
coarse-adjustment knob
moves the stage up and down to allow for focusing
fine-adjustment knob
moves the stage very slightly to bring the image into sharper focus
stage
supports a slide
stage clips
hold the slide in place for viewing
diaphragm
controls the amount of light coming through the stage
light source (illuminator)
provides light for viewing
arm
supports the body tube
base
supports the microscope
nosepiece
holds the objective lenses
Superior
Above
Inferior
Below
Ventral
Front
Dorsal
Back
Medial
Toward the middle
Lateral
Toward the outside
Proximal
Toward the body
Distal
Away from the body
Superficial
Toward the surface
Deep
Away from the surface
Integumentary System
-The Skin-Waterproof-Cushions and protects body from injury-Regulates body temperature, touch, and pain
Skeletal System
-Made of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints-Provides support for the body-Attaches to muscles for movement-Protects inner organs (heart, lungs, brain)-Makes blood cells-Stores minerals (calcium, phosphorus)
Muscular System
-Provides movement through muscle contractions-3 types of muscle: Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac-Skeletal muscle is found on the skeleton-Smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and internal organs.-Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart
Nervous System
-Body's control system-Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs-Senses send messages along nerves to brain-Brain sends message to muscles, glands, and organs
Endocrine System
-Set of glands that release hormones
-Growth, reproduction, and food use are all regulated by hormones
Cardiovascular System
-The heart, blood, and blood vessels-Blood transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to the body-Heart is the pump
Lymphatic System
-Spleen, tonsils, and lymph nodes
-Helps clean blood and return blood to blood vessels
Respiratory System
-Keeps body supplied with oxygen and removes CO2
-Includes airway from nose to lungs
Digestive System
-A tube that runs from mouth to anus
-Includes mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus
-Breaks down food to distribute nutrients to blood to deliver them to all cells
Urinary System
-Kidneys, bladder, urethra
-Removes waste (in the form of urine) from the body
Reproductive System
-Produces reproductive cells
-Sperm is the male reproductive cell
-The egg or ova is the female reproductive cell
-Female system contains ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, and vagina
-Male system contains testes, penis, and scrotum
Integumentary
Of, pertaining to, or like the skin
Centrioles
Bundles of tubules that assist in cell division in animal cells
Cytoplasm
The cytosol plus the organelles; everything outside of the nucleus and inside of the plasma membrane; contains materials needed by the cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Folded tubes or membrane structures that transport materials within the cell
Golgi Bodies (Golgi Apparatus)
Flattened saclike structures that package materials created in the cell for transport outside of the cell
Lysosome
Small saclike structure that breaks down materials in the cell
Mitochondrion
Bean shaped structure in the cell where cellular respiration occurs; produces energy for the cell
Nucleus
Oval structure that directs cell activities in eukaryotic cells; contains the genetic material (DNA) of the cell
Plasma Membrane (Cell Membrane in plants)
Fluid, semipermeable, lipid bilayer that surrounds all cells; provides support and protection; serves as a barrier between the cell and environment; controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell; helps to maintain homeostasis (biological balance)
Ribosome
Very small spherical structure that produces materials needed by the cell; protein synthesis
Vacuole
Structure that stores and transports materials inside the cell; Tend to be large in plant cells and small in animal cells
Cytosol
The aqueous part of the cytoplasm within which various particles and organelles are suspended
Cytoskeleton
A microscopic network of protein filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and and aid in movement
Peroxisomes
Membranous sacs containing enzymes used to break down hydrogen peroxide, alcohol and, other harmful substances
Nuclear Envelope
Perforated bilayer that surrounds the nucleus of a cell; Controls the movement of materials in and out of the nucleus
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum that has ribosomes embedded in its walls; Involved in the production of proteins
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum that does not have ribosomes embedded in its walls; Depending on the type of cell, it might be involved in lipid syhtnesis, detoxification, or calcium storage
Nucleolus
Dense region of protein located in the nucleus that produces ribosome
Chromatin
Structures in the nucleus that carry the genes (hereditary factors)
Microvilli
tiny "Fingerlike" projections that generally increase the cell's surface area for absorption
manubrium
top bone of the sternum
body
central largest piece of sternum
xiphoid process
bottom piece of sternum
Atlas
Top bone of the spinal column
cervical vertebrae
thoracic vertebrae
lumbar vertebrae
Simple squamous epithelium
single layer of very flat, scale-like cells; thin; nuclei visible along the border of the connective tissue; barrier to separate compartments of the body; allows for filtration & diffusion; lines alveoli of the lungs; found in glomerulus of the kidneys; lines capillaries; lines outside of many organs & cavities; "may be called mesothelium or endothelium depending upon location"
Endothelium
simple squamous endothelium that lines the inside of blood vessels
Mesothelium
simple squamous endothelium that covers the outer surface of organs
Simple cuboidal epithelium
single layer of square cells; can form an impermeable tube to move materials; forms most of the tubular system in the kidneys & plays an important role in urine formation, "forms the thyroid & ducts of many glands"
Simple columnar epithelium
single layer of rectangular cells; lines smaller airways (cilia); "forms the lining of the digestive system (mocrovilli & goblet cells)"
Cilia
special feature of simple columnar epithelium; hair-like structures that extend from the surface of the cell; help move materials over the surface of the epithelium
Goblet cells
special feature of simple columnar epithelium; single-celled mucous producing glands; mucous used to lubricate & protect the epithelial surface
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
most contain cilia & goblet cells; nuclei appear to be at different levels (false sense of multiple layers); can be found in the tubing of the reproductive system and "lines the major airways (trachea & bronchi)"
Stratified squamous epithelium
multiple layers of cells; cells near the basement membrane are cuboidal; cells near the tissue surface are flat & scale-like; very strong & durable; "forms the outer layer (epidermis) of the skin" & mucous membranes (moist entrances to mouth, urethra, vagina, anus, etc.
Endocrine glands
no duct leading out of the gland to deliver the secretion ~ blood delivers the secretion; produce hormones
Exocrine glands
ducts that lead to an epithelial surface to deliver the secretion; 3 types
Connective tissues
generally found beneath the epithelium; bind, support & unite the body; cells widely spaced; matrix between cells; highly vascular; "fills in the spaces underneath epithelia"
Epithelium tissues
surface tissues that cover & line body surfaces; protect from outside environment; tightly packed cells; one surface is exposed & the other surface is anchored to the underlying connective tissue; avascular
Soft connective tissues
connective tissue proper; very pliable; areolar, adipose, dense collagenous, reticular; hyaluronic acid
Support connective tissues
more rigid than soft connective; collagen fibers; cartilage & bone
Fluid connective tissues
"liquid" tissues; functionally connect organ systems; blood & lymph
Matrix
fills the space between the cells of connective tissue; composed of fibers & ground substance
Collagen fibers
matrix; thick protein bands that provide strength to tissue but resist stretching; connective tissues
Elastic fibers
matrix; thinner protein strands that stretch; flexibility
Reticular fibers
matrix; medium thickness; branched protein strands; RARELY found in connective tissues; very strong; fiber net to support organ cells
Ground substance
matrix; surrounds the cells & fibers of connective tissues; variety of textures
Hyaluronic acid
ground substance; soft connective tissue; watery ~ makes the connective tissue very flexible
Chondroitin sulfate
ground substance; gelatinous; cartilage; shape & flexibility
Calcium salts
ground substance; crystalline matrix of bone; very rigid structure ~ gives bone excellent support & protection
Areolar connective tissue
very common; located beneath nearly every epithelium; many different fibers (collagen & elastic) & cell types present
Adipose connective tissue
found beneath epithelia; forms protective cushions; chicken wire; specialized connective tissue "also known as fat"
Dense collagenous connective tissue
huge numbers of collagen fibers in matrix ~ very strong, resistant to stretching; 2 varieties: regularly arranged & irregularly arranged
Regularly arranged dense collagenous connective tissue
collagen fibers are neatly arranged in same direction; ligaments (bone to bone), tendons (muscle to bone), aponeuroses (muscle to muscle)
Irregularly arranged dense collagenous connective tissue
collagen fibers are randomly arranged in different directions; "forms joint & organ capsules"
Reticular connective tissue
branched reticular fibers; "forms the framework for organs like the liver & spleen", kidneys & lymph nodes
Cartilage
support connective tissue; only connective that is AVASCULAR; chondroitin sulfate is ground substance; cells within lucanae; 3 varieties
Hyaline cartilage
end of nose, portion of ribs, joint surfaces, fetal skeleton, trachea
Fibrocartilage
contain collagen fibers; "intervertebrel discs" of spinal column and meniscus pads in some joints
Elastic cartilage
elastic fibers & collagen; most flexible cartilage; portions of the outer ear
Osseous connective tissue
bone; support connective tissue; calcium salt; bony, rigid part of the skeleton; sliced tree trunk, bulls eye; cell found in lucanae; "has a calcified matrix;
Compact bone
solid bone on the outside of the skeleton; "forms the rigid part of the skeleton"
Osteons
small bone units of compact bone ~ each bulls eye
Cancellous bone
lacks the distinctive structure of compact bone; found on interior of the skeleton; composed of trabeculae, osteocytes in lacunae, osteon arrangement missing
Trabeculae
small spikes of bony matrix of cancellous bone
Blood
fluid connective tissue; numerous round red cells; lack a nucleus
Muscle tissues
contract & respond to stimuli; can be stretched; closely packed cells; found in large sheets; 3 types
Skeletal muscle
striated/striped; striations caused by myofilament arrangement; have multiple nuclei; under voluntary control; "forms the muscle that is attached to bones"
Cardiac muscle
striated; single nucleus; intercalated discs; "forms the muscular wall of the heart"
Intercalated discs
present in cardiac muscle; specialized cell junctions that allow rapid transmission of information from one cell to another within the heart
Smooth muscle
muscular walls of most body organs; LACK striations; smooth ~ cells are small and spindle-shaped; involuntary muscle control; line digestive system; 2 varieties
Visceral smooth muscle
muscular walls of many abdominal and pelvic organs; cells in large sheets; interconnected ~ function together as group
Multiunit smooth muscle
muscular walls of blood vessels, internal eye structures, arrector pili muscles (hair follicles of skin); large sheets; not interconnected ~ function independently
Nervous tissue
different types of cells: neurons, neuroglia
Neurons
large, star-shaped cells; send & receive electrical impulses; most distinctive cells in the nervous tissue; dark brown spots with branches coming off it
Transitional epithelium
"forms the lining of the urinary bladder"
coracoid process
a small hook-like structure on the lateral edge of the superior anterior portion of the scapula.
acromion
lateral extension of the spine of the scapula, forming the highest point of the shoulder
supraspinous fossa
posterior aspect of the scapula is smaller than the infraspinatous fossa, concave, smooth, and broader at its vertebral than at its humeral end. Its medial two-thirds give origin to the Supraspinatus.
glenoid cavity
from Greek: gléne, "socket") is a shallow pyriform, articular surface, which is located on the lateral angle of the scapula. It is directed laterally and forward and articulates with the head of the humerus; it is broader below than above and its vertical diameter is the longest: humerus socket.
spine of scapula
prominent plate of bone, which crosses obliquely the medial four-fifths of the scapula at its upper part, and separates the supra- from the infraspinatous fossa.
inferior angle of scapula
thick and rough, is formed by the union of the vertebral and axillary borders; its dorsal surface affords attachment to the Teres major and frequently to a few fibers of the Latissimus dorsi.
superior angle
top right edge
suprascapular notch
notch in the superior border of the scapula, just medial to the base of the coracoid process. Any mass in the suprascapular notch will affect both supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle leading to atrophy.
medial border
longest of the three borders, and extends from the medial to the inferior angle.
lateral border
(axillary border, or margin) is the thickest of the three borders of the scapula.
greater tubercle
lesser tubercle
coronoid fossa
olecranon fossa
medial epicondyle
lateral epicondyle
trochlea
capitulum
styloid process
radial tuberosity
olecranan process
radial notch
scaphoid
...
lunate
...
coxal bones
whole piece
ilium
top half
ischium
pubis
acetebelum
iliac crest
top crescents
pubic symphysis
greater sciatic notch
lesser sciatic notch
obturator foramen
pubic arch
pelvic brim
fovea capitis
greater trochanter
lesser trochanter
linea aspera
medial condyle
top right
lateral condyle
second on left
tibial tuberosity
...
anterior fontanelle
front center soft area where parietals and frontals join in fetal skull

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