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situated at the anterior part of the base of the cranium, between the two orbits, at the roof of the nose, and contributes to each of these cavities.

Lamboid suture

Proximal epiphysis

the enlarged proximal and distal ends of a long bone.


The dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones except at the joints and serving as an attachment for muscles and tendons.


the shaft of a long bone, between the epiphyses


the tissue lining the medullary cavity of a bone

distal epiphysis

Enlarged terminal part of the bone, farthest from the center of the body, made of spongy tissue and articulating with neighboring bones.

compact bone

Cortical bone, synonymous with compact bone, is one of the two types of osseous tissue that form bones. Sheath around osteons.


The metaphysis is the wider portion of a long bone adjacent to the epiphyseal plate.

spongy bone

Cancellous bone, synonymous with trabecular bone or spongy bone, is one of two types of osseous tissue that form bones. Osteons etc.


The Lacunae are situated between the lamella, and consist of a number of oblong spaces. Each lacuna is occupied during life by a branched cell, termed an osteocyte, bone-cell or bone-corpuscle. Lacunae are connected to one another by small canals called canaliculi. A lacuna never contains more than one osteocyte.


the basic unit of structure of compact bone, comprising a haversian canal and its concentrically arranged lamellae


A branched cell embedded in the matrix of bone tissue.

central (Haversian) canal

Any of the tiny, interconnecting, longitudinal channels in bone tissue through which blood vessels, nerve fibers, and lymphatics pass.


Lamellae are the layers that form concentric rings within the Haversian systems that make up bone tissue.


canaliculus is a small channel or canal, as in bones, where they connect to lacunae.

perforating (Volkmann's) canal

microscopic structures found in compact bone. They run within the osteons which are perpendicular to the Haversian canals, interconnecting the latter with each other and the periosteum


Large rounded projection of bone, may be roughened


narrow ridge of bone, usually prominent


Very large blunt irregularly shaped process of the femur connecting to the hip bone


Narrow ridge of bone, less prominent than a crest


small, rounded projection or process


raised area on or above a condyle

spine projection

sharp, slender, often pointed projection


A small, smooth nearly flat surface of a bone where articulation occurs.


long narrow depression occurring naturally on the surface of an organism or an anatomical part


depression or opening indentation on the edge of a bone


projection, sharp, slender often pointed process


small, rounded projection


narrow ridge of bone


large, rounded projection


bony expansion supported on a narrow neck of bone


armlike projection


rounded, articular projection, often articulates with a corresponding fossa


depression/opening, narrow and slit-like


depression or canal-like passageway


opening through a bone


shallow depression or opening in a bone, often serving as an articular surface


air-filled cavity, lined with mucous membrane, in a bone


large, irregularly shaped projection


raised area of a condyle


any bony projection or prominence

frontal bone

the front cap of the skull

parietal bones

behind frontal, on either side of sagittal suture

occipital bone

below parietal on lower back of skull

temporal bones

below parietal on sides of head


cheek bones, on sides of maxillar


bony nasal arch


in eye sockets where tear ducts are


back part of the nasal cavity, roof of mouth


Internal bone that forms the nasal cavities, eye orbit and ethmoid sinuses, Nasal concha


butterfly shaped bone. sella turcica depression for pituitary gland contains sphenoid sinuses


2 bones fuse to form maxilla. Aka mustache bone b/c of shape, located above mandible and below orbits.


lower jaw bone: Supports lower part of face and holds bottom half of the teeth in place.


base of the nasal cavity


Coronal, squamous, sagittal, and lambdoid

coronal suture

joins the frontal bone to the two parietal bones.

squamous suture

the temporal bone is attached to the parietal bone on the side of the head with the squamous suture

sagittal suture

joins the two parietal bones together.

lambdoid suture

Connects parietals with occipital

hyoid bone

provides an anchor for tongue muscles & upper part of the front of the neck.

cervical curvature

7 neck vertebrae: bones of top of spinal column: atlas, axis, dens, transverse foramen

thoracic curvature

12 bones below cervical on spinal column: costal facets, inferior notch

lumbar curvature

5 spinal column bones below thoracic, above sacral: lumbar vertebrae, lack costal facets

sacral curvature

5 fused vertebrae: sacral promontory, body, sacrel foramina


4 fused bones at base of spinal column

Structure of vertebrae

body, pedicle, lamina, spinous process, vertebral foramen, transverse process, articular facets

body of vertebrae

weight-bearing part of vertebrae: place where stacked

pedicle of vertebrae

neck connecting processes to body

vertebral lamina

posterior portion of the vertebral arch: the part of the neural arch of a vertebra extending from the pedicle to the median line

spinous process

centered spinelike or platelike dorsal process of the neural arch of a vertebra

vertebral foramen

the opening formed by a neural arch through which the spinal cord passes

transverse process of vertebra

a process that projects on the dorsolateral aspect of each side of the neural arch of a vertebra

articular facets

place where ribs attach to spinal column

ocular lens

eyepiece (magnifies 10x)

objective lenses

lenses of different powers (4x, 10x, and 40x)

body tube

maintains the correct distance between the ocular lens and the objectives

coarse-adjustment knob

moves the stage up and down to allow for focusing

fine-adjustment knob

moves the stage very slightly to bring the image into sharper focus


supports a slide

stage clips

hold the slide in place for viewing


controls the amount of light coming through the stage

light source (illuminator)

provides light for viewing


supports the body tube


supports the microscope


holds the objective lenses










Toward the middle


Toward the outside


Toward the body


Away from the body


Toward the surface


Away from the surface

Integumentary System

-The Skin-Waterproof-Cushions and protects body from injury-Regulates body temperature, touch, and pain

Skeletal System

-Made of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints-Provides support for the body-Attaches to muscles for movement-Protects inner organs (heart, lungs, brain)-Makes blood cells-Stores minerals (calcium, phosphorus)

Muscular System

-Provides movement through muscle contractions-3 types of muscle: Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac-Skeletal muscle is found on the skeleton-Smooth muscle is found in blood vessels and internal organs.-Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart

Nervous System

-Body's control system-Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs-Senses send messages along nerves to brain-Brain sends message to muscles, glands, and organs

Endocrine System

-Set of glands that release hormones
-Growth, reproduction, and food use are all regulated by hormones

Cardiovascular System

-The heart, blood, and blood vessels-Blood transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to the body-Heart is the pump

Lymphatic System

-Spleen, tonsils, and lymph nodes
-Helps clean blood and return blood to blood vessels

Respiratory System

-Keeps body supplied with oxygen and removes CO2
-Includes airway from nose to lungs

Digestive System

-A tube that runs from mouth to anus
-Includes mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus
-Breaks down food to distribute nutrients to blood to deliver them to all cells

Urinary System

-Kidneys, bladder, urethra
-Removes waste (in the form of urine) from the body

Reproductive System

-Produces reproductive cells
-Sperm is the male reproductive cell
-The egg or ova is the female reproductive cell
-Female system contains ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, and vagina
-Male system contains testes, penis, and scrotum


Of, pertaining to, or like the skin


Bundles of tubules that assist in cell division in animal cells


The cytosol plus the organelles; everything outside of the nucleus and inside of the plasma membrane; contains materials needed by the cells

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Folded tubes or membrane structures that transport materials within the cell

Golgi Bodies (Golgi Apparatus)

Flattened saclike structures that package materials created in the cell for transport outside of the cell


Small saclike structure that breaks down materials in the cell


Bean shaped structure in the cell where cellular respiration occurs; produces energy for the cell


Oval structure that directs cell activities in eukaryotic cells; contains the genetic material (DNA) of the cell

Plasma Membrane (Cell Membrane in plants)

Fluid, semipermeable, lipid bilayer that surrounds all cells; provides support and protection; serves as a barrier between the cell and environment; controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell; helps to maintain homeostasis (biological balance)


Very small spherical structure that produces materials needed by the cell; protein synthesis


Structure that stores and transports materials inside the cell; Tend to be large in plant cells and small in animal cells


The aqueous part of the cytoplasm within which various particles and organelles are suspended


A microscopic network of protein filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and and aid in movement


Membranous sacs containing enzymes used to break down hydrogen peroxide, alcohol and, other harmful substances

Nuclear Envelope

Perforated bilayer that surrounds the nucleus of a cell; Controls the movement of materials in and out of the nucleus

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Endoplasmic reticulum that has ribosomes embedded in its walls; Involved in the production of proteins

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Endoplasmic reticulum that does not have ribosomes embedded in its walls; Depending on the type of cell, it might be involved in lipid syhtnesis, detoxification, or calcium storage


Dense region of protein located in the nucleus that produces ribosome


Structures in the nucleus that carry the genes (hereditary factors)


tiny "Fingerlike" projections that generally increase the cell's surface area for absorption


top bone of the sternum


central largest piece of sternum

xiphoid process

bottom piece of sternum


Top bone of the spinal column

cervical vertebrae

thoracic vertebrae

lumbar vertebrae

Simple squamous epithelium

single layer of very flat, scale-like cells; thin; nuclei visible along the border of the connective tissue; barrier to separate compartments of the body; allows for filtration & diffusion; lines alveoli of the lungs; found in glomerulus of the kidneys; lines capillaries; lines outside of many organs & cavities; "may be called mesothelium or endothelium depending upon location"


simple squamous endothelium that lines the inside of blood vessels


simple squamous endothelium that covers the outer surface of organs

Simple cuboidal epithelium

single layer of square cells; can form an impermeable tube to move materials; forms most of the tubular system in the kidneys & plays an important role in urine formation, "forms the thyroid & ducts of many glands"

Simple columnar epithelium

single layer of rectangular cells; lines smaller airways (cilia); "forms the lining of the digestive system (mocrovilli & goblet cells)"


special feature of simple columnar epithelium; hair-like structures that extend from the surface of the cell; help move materials over the surface of the epithelium

Goblet cells

special feature of simple columnar epithelium; single-celled mucous producing glands; mucous used to lubricate & protect the epithelial surface

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

most contain cilia & goblet cells; nuclei appear to be at different levels (false sense of multiple layers); can be found in the tubing of the reproductive system and "lines the major airways (trachea & bronchi)"

Stratified squamous epithelium

multiple layers of cells; cells near the basement membrane are cuboidal; cells near the tissue surface are flat & scale-like; very strong & durable; "forms the outer layer (epidermis) of the skin" & mucous membranes (moist entrances to mouth, urethra, vagina, anus, etc.

Endocrine glands

no duct leading out of the gland to deliver the secretion ~ blood delivers the secretion; produce hormones

Exocrine glands

ducts that lead to an epithelial surface to deliver the secretion; 3 types

Connective tissues

generally found beneath the epithelium; bind, support & unite the body; cells widely spaced; matrix between cells; highly vascular; "fills in the spaces underneath epithelia"

Epithelium tissues

surface tissues that cover & line body surfaces; protect from outside environment; tightly packed cells; one surface is exposed & the other surface is anchored to the underlying connective tissue; avascular

Soft connective tissues

connective tissue proper; very pliable; areolar, adipose, dense collagenous, reticular; hyaluronic acid

Support connective tissues

more rigid than soft connective; collagen fibers; cartilage & bone

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