Marine biology chapter 8-9 OYO study guide

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8.4 A certain area of the beach has been known for encounters between sharks and humans. Some people suggest killing off the shark population to prevent any future encountered. If they do this, what might be some other results of this action?
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8.7 Name the trophic levels in the following food chain: macroalgae are eaten by wrasse fish, which are eaten by grouper, which are eaten by a shark. By the time the energy has traveled through this chain, has more of less energy been lost in this scenario than the energy loss at the top of of the food chain in question 8.6?
8.9 Two ecosystems are being compared in a light and dark bottle experiment. At the end of the experiment in the first area, the light bottle at a depth of 10 meters had 5.1 milligrams of oxygen in it while the dark bottle had 2.2 milligrams in it. At the end of the experiment in the second area the light bottle at a depth of 10 meters had 4.5 milligrams of oxygen in it while the dark bottle bad 1.1 milligrams in it. Which area has the higher net productivity?
8.11 For the following organisms determine whether they spend most of their time in the intertidal zone, the inner shelf, the outer shelf and the bathyal zone, or the abyssal zone:

A. Deep-water sharks like the megamouth shark
B. Birds that forage the shore for food
C. Sponges that harbor photosynthetic algae
D. Autotrophic bacteria that do not use photosynthesis but use chemicals found in sediments
9.3 While walking along a rocky intertidal zone a marine biologist noticed a tide pool with lots of seaweed in it but the exposed rocks near the tide pool are barren. He collects a sample off the surface of the rocks and analyzes if for the chemical remains of desiccated seaweed. Is he likely to find such remains? Why?
9.6 Explain why space on the substance is so important to organisms of the rocky intertidal.Something to hang on to so they will not get washed away.9.7 If a mussel possesses a mutation that prevents its production of byssal threads, is it still able to survive in the intertidal zone?Not be able to survive9.8 A marine biologist studies 2 different intertidal areas and finds the same species of limpet living in the upper intertidal zones of each area. In one of the areas the band of limpets is wider extending much lower than the band in the other area. Give a possible explanation for this.Fewer predators or more available space9.10 Name 2 biotic and 2 abiotic factors that cause new spaces go become available go organisms in the intertidal.Biotic: predation and competition for available resources. Abiotic: physical battering of heavy surf and debris drastic heat or cold and storms.9.11 what is the dominant species in each of the 3 intertidal zones?Upper intertidal are LITTORINA species. Middle intertidal is mussels. Lower intertidal is seaweeds.9.12 what is the limiting resource in each of the 3 intertidal zones.Upper intertidal is water. Middle intertidal is space. Lower intertidal is space and light.9.13 Explain why there are relatively few organisms living in the intertidal zone of a sandy beach.Most organisms living in the sand wouldn't get enough moisture to survive9.15 Muddy intertidal substrates hold more water for organisms living there. But this results in less water flow to replenish oxygen. How do organisms obtain enough oxygen to survive here?From living near the surface and siphoning in oxygen rich water9.16 The detritus content in a soft-bottom intertidal substance is high. Is this most likely a sandy or muddy substrate.Muddy substrate9.17 An intertidal ecosystem has few primary producers. In all likelihood, what do the consumers in the ecosystem eat?Detritus