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Anatomy Chapter 2 Vocabulary

Homestead High School Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 2 vocabulary flash cards.
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Elements
all matter is composed of substances called..._______
Atom
the smallest, stable unit of matter
Protons
have a positive electrical charge
Neutrons
are neutral - uncharged
Electrons
are only 1/1836 as massive as protons and have a negative electrical charge
Atomic number
the number of protons in an atom is known as it's...._______
Nucleus
the proton is located in the center of the atom and form the..._______
Electron cloud
In a hydrogen atom, a single electron orbits the nucleus at high speed, forming an....________ __________
Electron shell
the electron cloud is usually represented as a spherical...______ ________
Isotopes
the atoms of a given element differ in terms of the number of neutrons in the nucleus
Mass number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Atomic weight
the average mass of an element's atoms
Chemical bonds
hold the participating atoms together once a reaction has ended
Molecules
chemical structures that contain more than one atom bonded together by shared electrons
Compound
any chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more elements
Ions
atoms or molecules that have an electric charge
Cations
Ions with a positive charge (+)
Anions
Ions with a negative charge (-)
Ionic bonds
chemical bonds created by the electrical attraction between anions and cations
Surface tension
the attraction between water molecules at a free surface slows the rate of evaporation and creates the phenomenon known as...._________ ________
Chemical reaction
new chemical bonds form between atoms or existing bonds between atoms are broken
Metabolism
refers to all of the chemical reactions in the body
Energy
the capacity to perform work
Kinetic energy
the energy of motion
Potential energy
stored energy
Decomposition reaction
breaks a molecule into smaller fragments
Hydrolysis
one of the bonds in a complex molecule is broken
Catabolism
the decomposition reactions of complex molecules within cells
Synthesis
the opposite of decomposition
Dehydration synthesis (condensation)
the formation of a complex molecule by the removal of water
Anabolism
the synthesis of new compounds in the body
Exchange reaction
a reaction in which parts of the reacting molecules are shuffled
Equilibrium
the rates of the two reactions are in balance
Activation energy
the amount of energy required to start a reaction
Enzymes
speed up reactions that support life (belong to the class of catalysts)
Catalysts
compounds that accelerate chemical reactions without themselves being permanently changed
Nutrients
essential elements and molecules obtained from diet
Metabolites
all of the molecules synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside our bodies
Inorganic compounds
small molecules that generally do not contain carbon and hydrogen atoms
Organic compounds
primary composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms
Ionization
a process in which ionic bonds are broken apart as individual ions interact with the positive or negative ends of polar water molecules.
pH
the concentration of hydrogen ions
Acid
any substance that breaks apart in solution to RELEASE hydrogen ions
Strong acids
acids that dissociates completely in solution
Base
a substance that removes hydrogen ions from a solution
Strong base
bases that dissociate completely in solution
Salt
an ionic compound consisting of any cation except a hydrogen ion and any anion except a hydroxide ion
Electrolytes
inorganic compounds whose ions can conduct an electrical current in solution
Buffers
compounds that stabilize pH by either removing or replacing hydrogen ions
Carbohydrate
an organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio near 1:2:1
Simple sugar (monosaccharide)
a carbohydrate containing from three to seven carbon atoms
Disaccharide
two monosaccharides joined together
Polysaccharides
large carbohydrate molecules
Glycogen
a polysaccharide composed of interconnected glucose molecules
Lipids
fats, oils, and waxes
Fatty acids
long chains of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms
Steroids
large lipid molecules composed of four connected rings of carbon atoms
Phospholipids
consist of a glycerol and two fatty acids linked to a nonlipid group by a phosphate group
Structural proteins
create a three-dimensional framework for the body, providing strength, organization, and support for cells, tissues, and organ
Contractile proteins
responsible for muscular contraction
Hormones
influence the metabolic activities of every cell in the body
Antibodies
protect us from disease
Clotting proteins
restrict bleeding following an injury to the cardiovascular system
Amino acids
proteins are long chains of organic molecules called...._____ _____
Peptides
molecules made up of amino acids held together by peptide bonds
Substrates
the reactants in an enzymatic reaction
Active site
the substrates must bind to a special region of the enzyme called the...._______ ______
Nucleic acids
large organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
Complementary base pairs
adenine-thymine and cytosine-guanine
Double helix
structure of the DNA
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
the most important high-energy compound