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Homestead High School Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 2 vocabulary flash cards.


all matter is composed of substances called..._______


the smallest, stable unit of matter


have a positive electrical charge


are neutral - uncharged


are only 1/1836 as massive as protons and have a negative electrical charge

Atomic number

the number of protons in an atom is known as it's...._______


the proton is located in the center of the atom and form the..._______

Electron cloud

In a hydrogen atom, a single electron orbits the nucleus at high speed, forming an....________ __________

Electron shell

the electron cloud is usually represented as a spherical...______ ________


the atoms of a given element differ in terms of the number of neutrons in the nucleus

Mass number

the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

Atomic weight

the average mass of an element's atoms

Chemical bonds

hold the participating atoms together once a reaction has ended


chemical structures that contain more than one atom bonded together by shared electrons


any chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more elements


atoms or molecules that have an electric charge


Ions with a positive charge (+)


Ions with a negative charge (-)

Ionic bonds

chemical bonds created by the electrical attraction between anions and cations

Surface tension

the attraction between water molecules at a free surface slows the rate of evaporation and creates the phenomenon known as...._________ ________

Chemical reaction

new chemical bonds form between atoms or existing bonds between atoms are broken


refers to all of the chemical reactions in the body


the capacity to perform work

Kinetic energy

the energy of motion

Potential energy

stored energy

Decomposition reaction

breaks a molecule into smaller fragments


one of the bonds in a complex molecule is broken


the decomposition reactions of complex molecules within cells


the opposite of decomposition

Dehydration synthesis (condensation)

the formation of a complex molecule by the removal of water


the synthesis of new compounds in the body

Exchange reaction

a reaction in which parts of the reacting molecules are shuffled


the rates of the two reactions are in balance

Activation energy

the amount of energy required to start a reaction


speed up reactions that support life (belong to the class of catalysts)


compounds that accelerate chemical reactions without themselves being permanently changed


essential elements and molecules obtained from diet


all of the molecules synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside our bodies

Inorganic compounds

small molecules that generally do not contain carbon and hydrogen atoms

Organic compounds

primary composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms


a process in which ionic bonds are broken apart as individual ions interact with the positive or negative ends of polar water molecules.


the concentration of hydrogen ions


any substance that breaks apart in solution to RELEASE hydrogen ions

Strong acids

acids that dissociates completely in solution


a substance that removes hydrogen ions from a solution

Strong base

bases that dissociate completely in solution


an ionic compound consisting of any cation except a hydrogen ion and any anion except a hydroxide ion


inorganic compounds whose ions can conduct an electrical current in solution


compounds that stabilize pH by either removing or replacing hydrogen ions


an organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio near 1:2:1

Simple sugar (monosaccharide)

a carbohydrate containing from three to seven carbon atoms


two monosaccharides joined together


large carbohydrate molecules


a polysaccharide composed of interconnected glucose molecules


fats, oils, and waxes

Fatty acids

long chains of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms


large lipid molecules composed of four connected rings of carbon atoms


consist of a glycerol and two fatty acids linked to a nonlipid group by a phosphate group

Structural proteins

create a three-dimensional framework for the body, providing strength, organization, and support for cells, tissues, and organ

Contractile proteins

responsible for muscular contraction


influence the metabolic activities of every cell in the body


protect us from disease

Clotting proteins

restrict bleeding following an injury to the cardiovascular system

Amino acids

proteins are long chains of organic molecules called...._____ _____


molecules made up of amino acids held together by peptide bonds


the reactants in an enzymatic reaction

Active site

the substrates must bind to a special region of the enzyme called the...._______ ______

Nucleic acids

large organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.

Complementary base pairs

adenine-thymine and cytosine-guanine

Double helix

structure of the DNA

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

the most important high-energy compound

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