Government module 4 review questions

1 .
The Great Compromise successfully resolved differences between ________.
large and small states
slave and non-slave states
the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution
the House and the Senate
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3 .
The process of redistricting can present problems for congressional representation because ________.
districts must include urban and rural areas
states can gain but never lose districts
districts are often drawn to benefit partisan groups
states have been known to create more districts than they have been apportioned
Incumbents chase off would-be challengers because they are able to raise more money given that people want to back a winner and that voters know incumbents by name because they won the office in a previous election. The challengers who do take on incumbents typically lose soundly for the same reasons.
10 . What does Campbell's surge-and-decline theory suggest about the outcome of midterm elections?12 . A congressperson who pursued a strict delegate model of representation would seek to ________. legislate in the way he or she believed constituents wanted, regardless of the anticipated outcome legislate in a way that carefully considered the circumstances and issue so as to reach a solution that is best for everyone legislate in a way that is best for the nation regardless of the costs for the constituents legislate in the way that he or she thinks is best for the constituentsd.legislate in the way that he or she thinks is best for the constituents13 . The increasing value constituents have placed on descriptive representation in Congress has had the effect of ________. increasing the sensitivity representatives have to their constituents demands decreasing the rate at which incumbents are elected increasing the number of minority members in Congress decreasing the number of majority minority districtsincreasing the number of minority members in Congress14 . How has the growing interpretation of earmarks and other budget allocations as corruption influenced the way congresspersons work?it is difficult for Congress to do their job without them efficiently but the public sees them as corrupt15 . What does polling data suggest about the events that trigger exceptionally high congressional approval ratings?The peaks of congressional approval ratings have each occurred when the United States began military involvements overseas. This suggests that the start of a foreign war is one of the few things that triggers a positive reevaluation of Congress.16 . House leaders are more powerful than Senate leaders because of ________. the majoritarian nature of the House—a majority can run it like a cartel the larger size of the House the constitutional position of the House the State of the Union address being delivered in the House chamberthe majoritarian nature of the House—a majority can run it like a cartel17 . A select committee is different from a standing committee because ________. a select committee includes member of both chambers, while a standing committee includes only members of the House a select committee is used for bill reconciliation, while a standing committee is used for prosecutions a select committee must stay in session, while a standing committee goes to recess a select committee is convened for a specific and temporary purpose, while a standing committee is permanenta select committee is convened for a specific and temporary purpose, while a standing committee is permanent18 . Explain how the committees demonstrate a division of labor in Congress based on specialization.The work of congress is divided among a total of about 200 committees and subcommittees. Committees and subcommittees have great power over legislation19 . Stopping a filibuster requires that ________. a majority of senators agree on the bill the speaker steps away from the podium the chamber votes for cloture the Speaker or majority leader intervenesthe chamber votes for cloture20 . Saying a bill is being marked up is just another way to say it is being ________. tabled neglected vetoed amendedamended21 . The key means of advancing modern legislation is now ________. committees the actions of the leadership the budget process the filibusterthe budget process22 . Briefly explain the difference between the classic model of legislating and the modern process.A primary benefit of a bicameral system is the way it demands careful consideration and deliberate action on the part of the legislators. A primary drawback is that it is tougher overall to pass legislation and makes it extremely difficult to push through large-scale reforms.1 . Many at the Continental Congress were skeptical of allowing presidents to be directly elected by the legislature because ________. they were worried about giving the legislature too much power they feared the opportunities created for corruption they knew the weaknesses of an electoral college they worried about subjecting the commander-in-chief to public scrutinythey feared the opportunities created for corruption2 . Which of the following is a way George Washington expanded the power of the presidency? He refused to run again after serving two terms. He appointed the heads of various federal departments as his own advisors. He worked with the Senate to draft treaties with foreign countries. He submitted his neutrality proclamation to the Senate for approval.He appointed the heads of various federal departments as his own advisors.3 . How did presidents who served in the decades directly after Washington expand the powers of the presidency?John Adams expanded the war powers by waging undeclared war, Thomas Jefferson negotiated the purchase of Louisiana from France, and James Monroe took direct control of foreign policymaking when he issued the Monroe Doctrine.4 . What factors contributed to the growth of presidential power in the twentieth century?1. Unity of presidency2. Authority delegated by congress3. Citizens' demand for leadership4. President's ability to act quickly in crisis5. President's views/ways of fulfilling roles6. President's ability to use media5 . How did the election of 1824 change the way presidents were selected? Following this election, presidents were directly elected. Jackson's supporters decided to create a device for challenging the Electoral College. The election convinced many that the parties must adopt the king caucus as the primary method for selecting presidents. The selection of the candidate with fewer electoral votes triggered the rise of party control over nominations.The selection of the candidate with fewer electoral votes triggered the rise of party control over nominations.6 . Which of the following is an unintended consequence of the rise of the primary and caucus system? Sometimes candidates unpopular with the party leadership reach the top. Campaigns have become shorter and more expensive. The conventions have become more powerful than the voters. Often incumbent presidents will fail to be renominated by the party.Sometimes candidates unpopular with the party leadership reach the top.7 . What problems exist with the Electoral College?. There are many problems with the Electoral College. First, small states are over-represented in the Electoral College. Second, the state by state set-up of the college, in the modern era, leads to states that are safe wins for one party, leaving a handful of states that get all the attention. Finally, its outcomes can differ from the outcome of actual citizen voting (also known as the national popular vote.8 . The people who make up the modern president's cabinet are the heads of the major federal departments and ________. must be confirmed by the Senate once in office are subject to dismissal by the Senate serve two-year terms are selected base on the rules of patronagemust be confirmed by the Senate9 . A very challenging job for new presidents is to ______. move into the White House prepare and deliver their first State of the Union address nominate and gain confirmation for their cabinet and hundreds of other officials prepare their first executive budgetnominate and gain confirmation for their cabinet and hundreds of other officials10 . How do presidents work to fulfill their campaign promises once in office?Effective presidents, especially during peacetime, are those who work with other branches through persuasion and compromise to achieve policy objectives.11 . President Theodore Roosevelt's concept of the bully pulpit was the office's ________. authority to use force, especially military force constitutional power to veto legislation premier position to pressure through public appeal ability to use technology to enhance the voice of the presidentpremier position to pressure through public appeal12 . In what ways have first ladies expanded the role of their office over the twentieth century?The First Lady has no official government position. Yet she is often at the center of national attention. Several First Ladies such as Edith Galt Wilson, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Hillary Clinton have been very influential.13 . How were presidents in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries likely to reach the public? Were these methods effective?Presidents of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries might make speeches or publish letters in newspapers across the country. These methods may have been effective in their day, but not in comparison to the ability of modern presidents with television, radio, and the Internet at their disposal.14 . The passage of the Tenure of Office Act of 1867 was just one instance in a long line of ________. struggles for power between the president and the Congress unconstitutional presidential power grabbing impeachment trials arguments over presidential policya. struggles for power between the president and the Congress15 . Which of the following is an example of an executive agreement? The president negotiates an agreement with China and submits it to the Senate for ratification. The president changes a regulation on undocumented immigrant status without congressional approval. The president signs legally binding nuclear arms terms with Iran without seeking congressional approval. The president issues recommendations to the Department of Justice on what the meaning of a new criminal statute is.The president signs legally binding nuclear arms terms with Iran without seeking congressional approval.16 . How have the methods presidents use to negotiate with their party and the opposition changed over time?At one point, presidents were able to use patronage to empower their supporters. But as reforms took this option away, presidents had to look for others. Using the bully pulpit is one. Various rewards, mostly symbolic, that a president can give opponents and allies are others.17 . What strategies can presidents employ to win people over to their way of thinking?. Presidents can use road trips across the country, major speeches, and rewards to people in their camp. Historically, however, these techniques have only rarely been successful. What works best is for a president find a popular position to get out in front of.1 . The Supreme Court's power of judicial review ________. is given to it in the original constitution enables it to declare acts of the other branches unconstitutional allows it to hear cases establishes the three-tiered court systemenables it to declare acts of the other branches unconstitutional2 . The Supreme Court most typically functions as ________. a district court a trial court a court of original jurisdiction an appeals courtan appeals court3 . In Federalist No. 78, Alexander Hamilton characterized the judiciary as the ________ branch of government. most unnecessary strongest least dangerous most politicalleast dangerous4 . Explain one positive and one negative aspect of the lifetime term of office for judges and justices in the federal court system. Why do you believe the constitution's framers chose lifetime terms?On the positive side, a lifetime term of office protects judges and justices so they do not have to fear their decisions in cases (particularly controversial ones) will threaten their job security. Likewise, it prevents judges and justices from being removed from their jobs on a whim. On the negative side, a judge or justice could serve for decades in his or her position, preventing turnover and the introduction of fresh ideas. Lifetime terms seem contradictory under the principles of the U.S. system, which values limited government5 . What do you find most significant about having a common law system?The judicial branch is involved in the system of law-making in the United States. Through their interpretation of the law, judges are an important part of the legal system and influence the way law is made and interpreted. They don't just apply the law; they also make it.6 . Of all the court cases in the United States, the majority are handled ________. by the U.S. Supreme Court at the state level by the circuit courts by the U.S. district courtsat the state level7 . Both state and federal courts hear matters that involve ________. civil law only criminal law only both civil and criminal law neither civil nor criminal lawboth civil and criminal law8 . A state case is more likely to be heard by the federal courts when ________. it involves a federal question a governor requests a federal court hearing it involves a criminal matter the state courts are unable to come up with a decisionit involves a federal question9 . The existence of the dual court system is an unnecessary duplication to some but beneficial to others. Provide at least one positive and one negative characteristic of having overlapping court systems in the United States.Overlapping court systems provide each individual with more than just one court to protect his or her rights. A person seeking a wrong to be righted may have alternate places to pursue his or her case. On the other hand, having overlapping court systems opens the door to the possibility of unequal or disparate administration of justice.10 . Which court would you consider to be closest to the people? Why?The state courts (and especially the most local courts) deal with many day-to-day issues that are very close to the lives of the citizens and thus are close to the people. Or, on the other hand, the federal courts and the Supreme Court in particular are closest because they have done the most to expand individual rights and liberties grounded in the Bill of Rights11 . Besides the Supreme Court, there are lower courts in the national system called ________. state and federal courts district and circuit courts state and local courts civil and common courtsdistrict and circuit courts12 . In standing by precedent, a judge relies on the principle of ________. stare decisis amicus curiae judicial activism laissez-fairestare decisis13 . The justices of the Supreme Court are ________. elected by citizens chosen by the Congress confirmed by the president nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senatenominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate14 . Do you believe federal judges should be elected rather than appointed? Why or why not?Elections would make judges in a representative democracy more accountable to the people who elected them. Appointments, on the other hand, isolate them somewhat from the political whim of the day and from ever-changing public opinion, so they can make decisions without having to worry that they won't be re-elected in reprisal for their rulings.15 . When it comes to filling judicial positions in the federal courts, do you believe race, gender, religion, and ethnicity should matter? Why or why not?The United States has become much more diverse, and it is only fitting that the judicial branch more accurately reflects the demographic composition of the population. At the same time, judicial positions should be filled by the most competent and qualified candidates.16 . The Supreme Court consists of ________. nine associate justices one chief justice and eight associate justices thirteen judges one chief justice and five associate justicesOne chief justice and eight associated justice.17 . A case will be placed on the Court's docket when ________ justices agree to do so. four five six allfour18 . One of the main ways interest groups participate in Supreme Court cases is by ________. giving monetary contributions to the justices lobbying the justices filing amicus curiae briefs protesting in front of the Supreme Court buildingfiling amicus curiae briefs19 . The lawyer who represents the federal government and argues cases before the Supreme Court is the ________. solicitor general attorney general U.S. attorney chief justicesolicitor general20 . What do the appointments of the Supreme Court's two newest justices, Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan, reveal about the changing court system?Justice Sotomayor is the first Latina justice. As the fourth female justice, Elena Kagan joins Sotomayor in demonstrating the growing diversity of the court system.21 . When using judicial restraint, a judge will usually ________. refuse to rule on a case overrule any act of Congress he or she doesn't like defer to the decisions of the elected branches of government make mostly liberal rulingsdefer to the decisions of the elected branches of government22 . When a Supreme Court ruling is made, justices may write a ________ to show they agree with the majority but for different reasons. brief dissenting opinion majority opinion concurring opinionconcurring opinion23 . Which of the following is a check that the legislative branch has over the courts? Senate approval is needed for the appointment of justices and federal judges. Congress may rewrite a law the courts have declared unconstitutional. Congress may withhold funding needed to implement court decisions. all of the aboveall of the above24 . What are the core factors that determine how judges decide in court cases?Legal, Personal, ideological and political influences.25 . Discuss some of the difficulties involved in the implementation and enforcement of judicial decisions.The judicial branch has no power of its own over implementation of enforcement of its rulings and is thus dependent on the other two branches to make this happen, relying on the executive to enforce its decisions and on the legislature to fund it. Hamilton said the judiciary has "no influence over either the sword or the purse" and "neither force nor will, but merely judgment," stressing the court system's reliance on assistance from the other two branches.1 . ________ dictate the terms and conditions state governments would have to meet in order to qualify for financial assistance in a specific policy area. Categorical grants Block grants Unfunded mandates Crossover sanctionsCategorical grants2 . The Tenth Amendment created a class of powers exclusive to state governments. These powers are referred to as ________. enumerated powers implied powers reserved powers none of the abovereserved powers3 . Dillon's Rule gives local governments the freedom and flexibility to make decisions for themselves. True FalseFalse4 . Under the Articles of Confederation, the federal government was quite weak relative to the states. What changes were made to strengthen the role of the federal government under the U.S. Constitution?The Constitution gave the federal government more power. It created an executive branch and allowed the government to tax and get funds from the citizens. It also included a Bill of Rights which had rights set aside the government couldn't touch. The new Constitution gave the government the ability to enforce the law.5 . In a ________ political culture, the government is seen as a mechanism for maintaining the existing social order or status quo. moralistic individualistic traditionalistic nativistictraditionalistic6 . Under a ________ political culture, citizens will tend to be more tolerant of corruption from their political leaders and less likely to see politics as a noble profession in which all citizens should engage. moralistic individualistic traditionalistic nativisticindividualistic7 . ________ was the first state to institute all mail-in voting and automatic voter registration. California Oregon Washington New YorkOregon8 . A ________ is an officeholder who represents the will of those who elected him or her and acts in constituents' expressed interest. delegate trustee politico citizendelegate9 . In a ________ legislature, members tend to have low salaries, shorter sessions, and few staff members to assist them with their legislative functions. professional citizen hybrid unicameralcitizen10 . A(n) ________ veto allows the governor to cross out budget lines in the legislature-approved budget, while signing the remainder of the budget into law. amendatory line-item reduction Frankensteinreduction11 . Which branch would you consider to be closest to the people? Why?The state legislature, particularly the state house, where members represent fewer people per district. Constituency service is part of the job of a state representative or senator, and house members' need to be frequently reelected means they will have to pay attention to the electorate.12 . Under consecutive term limits, legislators can serve one time for the number of years allotted and are not permitted to ever compete for the office again. True Falsefalse13 . The most common term limit across the states that have imposed them is ________ years. four six eight twelveeight14 . When term limits have been overturned, the most common method was ________. a bill passed by the state legislature a decision by the state Supreme Court a voter referendum a governor's decreea decision by the state Supreme Court15 . Term limits have produced a statistically significant increase in the number of women serving in state legislatures. True FalseFalse16 . Currently, ________ states have term limits in place. five ten fifteen twentyfifteen17 . Under the mayor-council system, the ________. legislative and executive responsibilities are separated political and administrative functions are separated mayor chairs the city council city council selects the mayorlegislative and executive responsibilities are separated18 . Which of the following is not one of the three forms of county government? the commission system the council-elected executive system the mayor-council system the council-administrator systemthe mayor-council system19 . What are the primary responsibilities of municipal governments?Municipal governments are responsible for providing clean water as well as sewage and garbage disposal. They maintain city facilities, such as parks, streetlights, and stadiums. In addition, they address zoning and building regulations, promote economic development, and provide law enforcement, public transportation, and fire protection.