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After breaking up with your boyfriend, you imagine that you would still be with him if you had treated him more considerately. This is an example of

counterfactual thinking.

According to a study by Burger and Pavelich (1994), voters were more likely to attribute the outcome of an election to the _______ the day after a presidential election, and to the _______ a year after the election.

candidate's personal traits and positions; nation's economy

A belief that leads to its own fulfillment is called

a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Attributing behavior to a person's traits is an example of what type of attribution?


According to the text, many men assume women are flattered by repeated requests for dates, which women more often see as harassing. This is an example of


After 9/11, many people abandoned air travel because of the

availability heuristic.

A self-conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself is called


Assuming most crimes involve violence because the news generally reports on rapes, robberies, and beatings is an example of the _______ heuristic.


Burger and Pavelich (1994) found that voters were more likely to attribute the outcome of an election to the candidate's personal traits and positions the day after a presidential election, and to the nation's economy a year after the election. This represents which of the following explanations for the fundamental attribution error?

changing perspectives trend

"Implicit" thinking that is effortless, habitual, and without awareness is called

automatic processing

Although travelers in the United States are more likely to die in an automobile crash than on a commercial flight covering the same distance, people often assume that flying is more dangerous than driving. What type of heuristic are people using when they make this assumption?

availability heuristic

A fellow student is consistently late for class. You assume this is because he is lazy and unorganized. What type of attribution are you making for his behavior?


According to research done by Miller and his colleagues (1975), if you want young children to put trash in wastebaskets, you should repeatedly

congratulate them for being neat and tidy.

According to the attribution theorist Kelley (1973), what three types of information do we use when we make attributions for other people's behavior?

consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus

"Explicit" thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious is called

controlled processing

According to your text, people everywhere perceive referees and the media as

biased against their position.

Activating particular associations in memory is called


Attributing behavior to a person's environment is an example of what type of attribution?


According to the text, observers tend to attribute a person's behavior to _______ the more that time passes.

the situation

After reading a newspaper article about teenagers who illegally download music from the Internet, you conclude that those who engage in such behavior are morally bankrupt. It never occurs to you that the reason teenagers download music from the Internet is because they are not able to afford the price of a compact disc, or the temptation to download, coupled with the peer pressure to do so, is often great. Your thinking on this matter can be characterized by the

fundamental attribution error.

According to the research study in the video, if a subject is told that their ability to learn a skill is based on "innate IQ and ability":

They become less confident and unwilling to set high goals.

High self-efficacy leads one to be:

More persistent.

Albert Bandura studied how _________ ___________ contributed to performance:


Patricia Ryan explained how status can be increased by:

Speaking calmly and making eye contact.

Carl Rogers proposed that:

Everyone has the capacity for self-understanding and self-direction.

Research has indicated that our beliefs and behavior can create their own reality. We behave in a certain way, others respond to us based on our behavior. This is called:

Behavioral confirmation.

Freud believed that the "self":

Was a weak, passive link between the id and superego.

According to the research of Dr. Teresa Amabile:

People motivated by interest and enjoyment are the most creative.

Someone who is very concerned about their own weight, may perceive others through weight issues. They would be considered:

Weight schematic.

What do social psychologists mean by "individuation?"

Separation of the child from its mother.

When we behave in such a way that we want others to see us as we see ourselves, this is called:

Strategic self-presentation.

According to the research of Dr. Hazel Marcus:

People in Japan prefer to be connected to others.

These are cognitive ways in which we categorize things in the world, an organized system of beliefs about something that is built up from experience and guides the processing of new information:


All of the following except ___________are kinds of "self" according to William James


Considering that most people want others to view them in a positive light, the particular way in which we strive to view ourselves and the way in which we want others to view us pertains to our ________________.

self presentation

The results of research regarding rating one's self, compared to others, in numerous domains, show that people tend to

rate themselves as being better than average compared to other people.

Some people engage in _______________ behavior by not trying their best, on purpose, out of fear of failure, to avoid dealing with negative feelings that might arise if they were to try their hardest and it was not good enough to succeed.


Research regarding self-serving bias has shown that displaying a self-serving bias can

be adaptive and protect a person from stress and negative moods.

What term, originally observed by studying dogs in an experimental situation, who appeared passive and depressed after being forbidden to escape an electric shock and did not try to escape from the shock when permitted to do so, was extrapolated and applied to humans who give up and do not try to better themselves when faced with overwhelming adversities.

learned helplessness

At the luncheon, Steven rambled on and on about his political views, thinking everyone at the table agreed. Little did he know, they were secretly groaning and rolling their eyes. Which of the following would this describe?

The false consensus effect.

A young child brings her finger painting home to her narcissistic parent. What will the child most likely hear?

"Uh, what does that have to do with me?"

In the middle of a grueling exam, a student pauses momentarily and gives herself a silent cheer: "You can do it, you can do it. You can, you can." She winds up earning an A. This would demonstrate which of the following concepts?

Being high in self-efficacy.

The term ______________ is used to describe when a person's confidence level moves into the realm of arrogance.


Regarding research on subjects who are presented with choices about which they can make decisions, there is evidence that shows that

subjects are more satisfied after having fewer possible choices than more choices

The false uniqueness effect occurs when

a person thinks they are overly special for being talented or performing a good deed, not realizing that they are relatively common and not so great.

The results from research on optimism shows that

people rate themselves in a manner that is unrealistically optimistic.

Group-serving bias involves

attributing positive aspects to a group that a person is affiliated with, and negative aspects to those who are not part of a person's group.

Julian Rotter's concept of locus of control involves

when someone attributes an event as being something that is under their control or as being outside of their control.

Cultural differences in a person's self-concept reflect

collectivism and individualism.

Self-serving bias involves

the tendency to take credit for something when succeeding, and to blame others when one has failure experiences.

Self-concept refers to

a person's identity.

How is self-esteem different from self-concept?

both B and C.

The term "possible selves" refers to

who we hope to be in the future and who we hope not to become.

Someone who speaks their mind, as opposed to being a "yes-man" would be considered

low in self monitoring

A famous study to research obedience to authority was surprising to scientists and the public because:

No one expected that 65% (2/3) of the participants would obey the experimenter and deliver shocks up to the highest level.

This famous social psychologist escaped Nazi Germany and went on to study leadership styles:

Kurt Lewin.

Which statement BEST describes the "error" in the fundamental attribution error?

We tend to overemphasize the influence of personality factors in making attributions about others.

Alex is a participant in a study that involves judging line length. On several trials, all of the other participants made obviously incorrect judgments, and Alex must decide what to do. This study was developed by ________________ to study ___________:

Solomon Asch; conformity.

Social psychology began to emerge as the distinctive field it is today during:

World War II when researchers contributed studies about persuasion and leadership styles.

What 3 leadership styles were studied in 1939 with young boys as subjects?

Democratic, autocratic, laissez-faire.

Why is there concern about experiments involving shocking others?

There may be long term emotional effects on the part of the subjects.

Thomas Moriarty found in his research:

That 95% of people would help when asked.

The famous leadership study found that:

Autocratic leaders produced more work when they were present.

The main point of Phillip Zimbardo's study related to:

How social roles dictate our behavior.

Phillip Zimbardo's classic study was discontinued early because:

The "prisoners" started to have stress reactions.

Ellen Langer found in her research:

Cadets who flew a flight simulator had better vision than cadets who did not fly a flight simulator.

What was the name of the social psychologist who conducted a study in which participants were required to shock another person?

Stanley Milgram.

It is best to use _____________ to ensure that the population of subjects being studied is representative of the larger, broader population under question.

random sampling

The hallmarks of an experiment include

both a&b

Deception, which is considered an acceptable practice in psychological research, may include

All of these.

A theory falls by the wayside when

a better theory is proposed to account for the findings.

One of the best ways to conduct an experiment is to

randomly assign the subjects to the groups.

A researcher was interested in the relationship between the amount of violent t.v. shows children watched, and observable acts of aggression exhibited by children. The experimenter randomly assigned the children into three groups. One group watched five hours of violent t.v., a second group watched ten hours of violent t.v., and a third group watched fifteen hours of violent t.v. Parents and teachers then recorded the number of acts of physical aggression committed by the children. The physical aggression measured from the children was the

dependent variable.

When reading research results, it is important to keep in mind which of the following?

Both A and B.

Criticisms regarding social psychology include that

it is dangerous and trivial.

In the Dartmouth versus Princeton study discussed in the text, each group of students reported viewing a greater number of violations committed by the opposing school's football team, compared to their own football team. The findings suggest that

perceptions are influenced by biases, beliefs, and values, despite objective reality.

Three years after Tom ended their relationship, Julie finally understood her grandmother's words "Darling, he did you a favor." Which term best describes this?


Constructing a survey to administer to subjects can be quite complex and involving. Which of the following can influence the results when designing a survey?

All of these.

Based upon a theory, the broad umbrella idea, researchers formulate predictions, otherwise known as ______________.


Cause and effect statements can be made when a researcher conducts

an experiment.

A correlational study involves

examining the relationship between two variables.

Hindsight bias reflects

All of these.

What can we conclude from the results of a correlational study?

That there may or may not be a relationship between two variables.

One definition of social psychology is

The scientific study of how people think about each other, influence each other, and interact with each other.

The subfield of social psychology rests at the border between the field of psychology and the field of


If the results of a study showed that children who have encyclopedias in their homes earn higher grades than children who do not have encyclopedias in their homes, what can you conclude?

That there is a relationship between having encyclopedias in the home and earning high grades.

Social psychology

The scientific study of how the actual or perceived presence of others affects the behavior of individuals.

Norman Triplett

In 1895 conducted the first social psychology study
He demonstrated that cyclists performed better in the presence of others (social facilitation).

Kurt Lewin

Interactionism: combines personality psychology (which stresses differences among people) with environmental psychology (which stresses differences among situations)


The total lifestyle of people from a particular social grouping, includes all the ideas, behaviors, symbols, preferences, and material objects that they share.


A social group exhibiting a lifestyle sufficiently different to distinguish itself from others within the larger culture.


stresses the priority of individual needs over group needs, a preference for loosely knit social relationships and a desire to be relatively independent.


stresses the priority of group needs over individual needs, a preference for tightly knit social relationships and a willingness to submit to the influence of one's group.

Most common ways to collect Data

a. Self report: Likert Scale
b. Archival information
c. Direct observation

Independent variable

the experimental variable that the researcher manipulates (treatment group)

Dependent variable

the experimental variable that is the same in both groups and thought to be influenced by the independent variable (control group)

Research Review

1. Select a research topic.
A Theory: an organized system of ideas that seeks to explain why two or more events are related.
3. Formulate a Hypothesis: predictions derived from a theory.
4. Select a research method.
5. Collect data

Strengths of Correlations

The relationship between two variables can range from -1.00 to +1.00.
Correlations of +.50 to +.60 or
-.50 to -.60 are strong
between .30 to +.50 or -.30 to -.50 are moderately strong,
and those below +.30 or +.20 and
-.30 to -.20 are considered rather weak.

Spotlight effect

Belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behavior than they really are

Illusion of transparency

Illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others


Protecting one's self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure


Tendency to act like social chameleons
Can be high in self-monitoring: concerned about what others think about you.
Low in self-monitoring: not as concerned about what others think about you.


Albert Bandura (1997): A belief in one's abilities on various tasks.

Locus of control

Perceived control over certain life events, generally either "external" or "internal".

Self-Serving Bias

Areas in which we believe we are above average


Basking in Reflected Glory: pride in the accomplishments of your "ingroup"


Cutting Off Reflected Failure: refusal to support group if it is "losing" too much or embarrassing

Individualistic cultures

emphasize the "independent self"

Collectivistic cultures

he "interdependent self"

Self-serving bias

A tendency to overestimate one's achievements and capabilities in relation to others.

Self Reference

we recall people and events better when we can relate them back to ourselves.

Self Identity

includes how we conceptualize ourselves in relationship to others.

Self Concept

The sum total of a person's thoughts and feelings that defines the self as an object

Self Esteem

A person's evaluation of his or her self-concept, evaluations of self as good, bad, or average


"Self as knower and self as known."
"I" acts as a narrator of a story.
"me" is the main figure in one's life story.
3 regions of "me"
1. spiritual me: Beliefs, values, ideas, opinions, etc.
2. social me: How do others see me?
3. material me: My possessions, family, friends

George Herbert Mead

Self emerges as a result of social interaction.
1. Preparatory stage: imitation, learn symbols, awareness of others
2. Play stage: identify with specific others, role taking, conforming, gender roles
3. game stage: multiple roles & tasks, expectations, follow rules

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