US Constitution Amendments

Study Guide Covering the 27 Amendments to the US Constitution, detailed descriptions.
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1st
1791, Freedom of Religion, Press, Expression; Establishment Clause, Free Exercise Clause - Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
2nd
1791, Right to Bear Arms -- A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
3rd
1791, Quartering of Soldiers -- No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
4th
1791, Search and Seizure -- The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
5th
1791, Trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings -- No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
6th
1791, Right to Speedy Trial, Confrontation of Witnesses -- In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.
7th
1791, Trial by Jury in Civil Cases -- In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
8th
1791, Cruel and Unusual Punishment -- Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
9th
1791, The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people
10th
1791, Powers of the States and People -- The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
11th
1795, A state may not be be sued by a citizen of another state -- The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.
12th
1804, Choosing the President and Vice President (In light of tie during 1800 election of Thomas Jefferson)
13th
1865, Slavery Abolished
14th
1868, Citizenship Rights - extended citizenship to blacks, expanded due process, and confirmed the validity of the naitonal debt
15th
1870, Race No Bar to Vote -- The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
16th
1913, Establishment Income Tax -- The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
17th
1913, Senators Elected by Popular Vote
18th
1919, Liquor Abolished
19th
1920, Women's Suffrage -- The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
20th
1933, Presidential, Congressional Terms; changed dates
21st
1933, Amendment 18 Repealed
22nd
1951, Presidential Term Limits (in light of FDR's 4th election to the Presidency)
23rd
1961, Presidential Vote for District of Columbia
24th
1964, Poll Taxes Barred
25th
1967, Presidential Disability and Succession
26th
1971, Voting Age Set to 18 Years (In light of Vietnam war)
27th
1992, Limiting Congressional Pay Increases (originally proposed by James Madison in 1798)