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cell-cell interactions

fibre composites

consists of a cross-linked network of long filaments embedded in a stiff surrounding material

fibre composites

rugged structures composed of strong rods and filaments

primary cell wall

fibre composite secreted by newly formed cells. consists of cellulose


carbohydrates that have hydrophillic polysaccharides. synthesized in Rough ER and golgi apparatus


carbohydrate that composes the cell wall

turgor pressure

force that exerted when incoming water inflates the plasma membrane

secondary cell wall

layer secreted inside the primary cell wall when plants mature


substance that supports a secondary cell wall. is tough and rigid

extracellular matrix

fibre composite secreted by animal cells. consists of protein fibres and is synthesized by the Rough ER and Golgi apparatus

structural support

the main function of the extracellular matrix


protein that makes up the extracellular matrix


actin filaments in the cytoskeleton are connected to this transmembrane.


proteins that integrins bind to. they link cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix


physical connections between cells


consist of groups similar to cells that perform a similar function


integrated structures that are formed when several tissues are combined

cell-cell attachments

distinctive layer of material that joins plant cells together

cell-cell attachments

primary cell walls of adjacent cells attach to a central layer designated in the middle lamella


glues cell walls together


tissues that form an external and internal surfaces


form layers that separate organs and other structures

tight junctions

cell-cell attachment composed of specialized proteins in the plasma membrane

tight junctions

line up and bind to one another to form a watertight seal


cell-cell connection found in animal cells

selective adhesion

cells of different types adhere to the same tissue type


protein that binds specifically to a section of another protein


molecules in desmosomes


each major type of cell has a different type of __ in its plasma membrane


in plants: connections between cytoplasm of adjacent cells


gaps in cell walls where plasma membrane and cytoplasm of two cells are continuous. smooth er runs through these holes

gap junctions

adjacent animal cells are connected by these structures

gap junctions

create channels between cells. allow water, ions and small molecules to move in between cells


info-carrying molecule that is secreted from a cell


if a __ is lipid soluble, it can diffuse across a membrane


presene of an appropriate ___ dictates which cells will be able to resond to a particular hormone

long-distance signalling

coordinates the activities of cells throughout a multicellular organism

signal receptors

proteins that change overall shape after binding to a signalling molecule

beta blockers

signal receptors can be blocked by these

signal transduction

is triggered by a hormone's arrival at the cell surface

signal transduction

conversion of the signal from one to another

signal amplification

occurs when a hormone arrives at the cell surface and transmits a message. occurs inside the cell at the plasma membrane.

g proteins

peripheral membrane proteins inside the cell

g proteins

bind to GTP and GDP

g proteins

activated by a cell receptor changing shape in response to a hormone binding

protein kinases

activated by several second messengers. activate or inactivate other proteins by adding a P group to them

receptor tyrosine kinases

enzyme linked receptors. when a hormone binds to one of these, the protein responds by forming a dimer


once it is ___, a receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) becomes an active enzyme


receptor tyrosine kinases


peripheral membrane protein that functions like a G protein


once activated, it triggers phosphorylation of an intracellular protein


proteins form a bridge to this protein. then it exchanges its GDP for a GTP

phosphorylation cascade

each enzyme in this cascade catalyzes phosphorylation


addition of a phosphate group to a molecule.

receptor tyrosine kinase

once activated, it can trigger the activation of thousands of proteins

signal transduction systems

trigger a rapid response and can be shut down quickly


provide the physical basis for selective adhesion and are a critical component of the desmosomes

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