is a socially shared code, or conventional system, that represents ideas through the use of arbitrary symbols and rules that govern combinations of these symbols.
implicit knowledge of rules
use of knowledge to communicate
linguistic elements that connect sounds and symbols with meaning: morphology, syntax, and phonology
knowledge of objects, events, and people and their relationships: semantics
rules governing use of language in social contexts: pragmatics
meaning of words and relationships between them; literal and nonliteral meanings
rules governing use of language in social contexts
rules governing structure of sentences, including word order and organization of sentence types. Also, parts of speech and sentence constituents
rules governing word formation, internal structures of words, and construction of words from morphemes (smallest linguistic unit with meaning)
system of rules that govern sounds and combination
the smallest sound unit and are language specific. Help to distinguish among morphemes within a language.
variation in production of sound that does not change status as phoneme
when two words differ by only one sound, they cream a minimal contrast
different spelling, different meaning, same pronunciation.
characteristics of speech larger than phoneme or phonetic segments; prosodic features.
stress, intonation, loudness, and pitch level.
degree of effort, prominence, or importance
sound intensity or vocal effort
vocal punctuation combination of intonation, pausing, and other suprasegmentals
with increased rate or less stress, vowel often goes to "schwa"
consonants that function as vowels in certain phonetic contexts /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/
Phonetic transcription of vowels
tongue height, tongue positions, tenseness, and lip roundness
high, mid, low
front, central, back
tongue tense or lax
lips rounded or unrounded
Consonantal sound (DF)
have a radical or marked constriction in the midsagittal region of the vocal tract; distinguished the "true" consonants from the vowels and glides
Sonorant sound (DF)
have a vocal configuration that permits spontaneous voicing, which means that the airstream can pass vertically unimpeded though the oral or nasal cavity; ex: vowels, glides, nasal consonants, and lateral or rhotacized consonants
Strident sound (DF)
fricatives and affricates produced with intense noise; amount of noise depends on characteristics of the constriction, including roughness of the articulatory surface, rate of flow over it, etc.; produce hissing noise. Sub group of sibilant.
Coronal sound (DF)
have a tongue blade position above the neutral state; elevated tongue tip or blade; ex: /t/, /d/, /n/, /s/, /i/, theta.
Lateral sound (DF)
coronal consonants made with midline closur and lateral opening. ex: /l/
Obstruent sound (DF)
opposite of sonorants. ex: stops, fricatives, affricates. /b/, /p/, sh
blade of tongue touches palate ex: sh, j, ch, beige
/k/, /g/, ing
constriction of glottis
example of initial consonant position
s in sun
example of medial consonant position
p in diaper
Postvocalic consonant position
consonant or consonant cluster that occurs after a vowel at the end of a word (ex: g in pig) or befoer a syllable boundary (ex: th in bathtub)
Prevocalic consonant position
consonant or consonant cluster that appears before a vowel at the beginning of a word (ex: p in pig) ot after a syllable boundary (ex: t in bathtub)
intraoral pressure is high. include: fricatives and stops. /p/ Voiceless stops have higher pressure than voiceless stops as they have no loss of pressure from voicing.
two phonemes that differ only in voicing. ex: /s/ and /z/
anticipating and overlapping in natural speech
focused on describing overt and observable behaviors. Is limited in regards to spontaneous speech.
says that phonology is a science of speech sounds and sound patterns. Can generate rules. Is based on a binary syster (+ or-)
some processes (errors) are natural. Ex: final consonant deletion is more natural than initial consonant deletion. As children grow older they will suppress the processes to sound more adult-like.
focuses on the hierarchical nature of the relationships between phonological units. Auto segmental theory. Prosodic tier and segmental tier. Think of onset-rime tier. Linear- how sounds get put together. Nonlinear- prosody, stress, speaking rate, etc. Is a collection of theories.
main theory is constraints. Markedness constraint are limitations of what can be pronounces. Faithfulness constraints capture the features to be "preserves". Generator theory that your mind thinks of all the potential sounds in the language. Evaluator- identifies what sound combo works best.
refers to the relative loudness of a sounds relative to other sounds with the same pitch, stress, and length.
prescriptions for converting abstract phonological representations into phonetic representations.
Context-free phonological rule
does not depend on phonetic context. Realistically does not exist.
Context-sensitive phonological rule
restriction on the use of the rule. Within certain contexts children may be able to produce sound correctly.
phoneme or syllable is deleted under certain conditions. AKA omission.
phoneme or syllable is added under certain conditions. AKA addition. Typically this is a schwa.
feature of phoneme is changed under certain conditions. AKA substitution. manner, place, voicing, etc.
phoneme is changed to be more similar to surrounding phonemes. This could be considered a sub-category of feature-changing rule.
How speech acquisition data are obtained
diary studies, large-group cross-sectional studies of typical speech sound acquisition, longitudinal studies of typical speech sound acquisition, combined data-collection procedures.
High Amplitude Sucking (HAS)
pacifier with electrode, infant sucks fast for novel sound. Lose interest and the rate goes down.
Head Turning (HT)
produce sounds and child will look for where the sound came from.
Event Response Potential (ERP)
place electrodes on child's head , present sound, measure brain activity, amplitude, etc.
Schriberg's early 8
/m/, /n/, /b/, /j/, /w/, /d/, /p/, /h/
Schriberg's middle 8
/t/, ing, /k/, /g/, /f/, /v/, ch, j,
Schriberg's late 8
sh, theta, /s/, /z/, eth, /l/, /r/, beige
Factors influencing typical acquisiton of speech
gender, socioeconomic status, language development, individual variability.
Most common congenital orofacial anomaly for speech sound disorders
means A directly cause B
means there is a link between A and B but A did not necessarily cause B. Ex: high arched palate vs. sound production errors. Ex: tongue thrust vs. sound production errors.
Cleft lip (major structural variation)
with surgery, short and rather immobile upper lip that is not a big problem for most speakers
Tongue-glossectomy (major structural variation)
partial removal of tongue, which may affect articulation
Hard palate (major structural variation)
removal of tissue for oral cancer effects articulation; scarring related to a surgery for a cleft palate does not effect
velopharyngeal competence (soft palate)
ability to close off nasal from oral passage
velopharyngeal incompetence (soft palate)
results in hypernasality, reduced air pressure on fricatives, stops, and affricates, oftern get nasal emission with pharyngeal fricatives and glottal stops, may be associated with cleft palate or paresis of velopharygeal muscles
Nasopharynx (Major structural variations)
enlarged (hypertrophied) adenoids may compensate for velopharyngeal incompetence (due to short or partially immobile velum). Significantly large adenoids obstruct the nasopharynx and lead to hyponasal speech
chromosome 21 aka trisomy 21. 1 in 700. Have cognitive impairment and relative macroglossia. Frequent otitis media.
Fragile x syndrome
1 in 4,000. Cognitive delay, discovered through genetic testing. Common with autism. Discovered through genetic testing.
age of onset and detection of loss is critical.
Appraxia (neuromotor disorder)
motor speech programming disorder. Inconsistent error patterns.
difficulty with intentional oral movement (like puckering lips, etc)
difficulty producing speech sounds.
paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of speech musculature. Biggest problem is speech intelligibility.
Childhoos appraxia of speech
controversial. groping or unsure where to place sounds in mouth. Effortful speech.
External speech sound discrimination
someone else says phonemes or child tapes own productions (external self-discrimination) and child determines if correct or incorrect.
Internal speech sound discrimination
self monitoring. child says phonemes and determines if production is correct or not. Essential for child to self-correct.
imperfect or irregular positions of teeth when jaws are closed.
frenum is abnormally short.
asking the child to produce single syllable, dsyllable, and trisyllable patterns.