language describing ideas and qualities rather than specific things, people, or places. Usually described as concrete language
the subject of the sentence performs the action. this is a more direct/preferred style of writing in most cases
an indirect reference (usually literary text but can be to other commonly known things) with which the reader is supposed to be familiar
an event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way. Also, the manner of expression of such an event or situation may be ambiguous. Artful language may be ambiguous.
a comparison to a directly parallel case. When a writer uses an analogy, she argues that a claim reasonable for one case is reasonable for the analogous case.
a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. the effect adds familiarity or emotional intensity
art or literature characterized by a realistic view of people and the world, sticks to traditional themes and structures (see romanticism)
language that describes specific, observable things, people or places, rather than ideas or qualities (see abstract language)
word choice, particularly as an element of style. Different types of words have significant effects. (types=formal, informal, ornate or plain)
rather then a dictionary definition (denotation), it is the implied meaning rather than the littler meaning. (EX: policeman, cop, and the man all denote the same literal meaning of a police officer, but each has a different connotation
1. language or dialect of a particular country 2. language or dialect of a regional clan or group 3. plain everyday speech
a term used to describe fiction, nonfiction or poetry that teaches a specific lesson or moral or provides a model of correct behavior or thinking
a story, fictional or non fictional, in which characters, things, and events represent qualities or concepts. the interaction of these characters, things, and events is meant to reveal an abstraction or truth (EX: Animal Farm by George Orwell)
the term literally means "sermon," but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving spiritual/moral advice
a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts. sometimes they are used for political correctness. (EX: Vertically challenged=short)
the act of interpreting or discover the meaning of a text. Attention to close reading and the use of rhetorical devices
a common, often used expression that doesn't make sense if you take it literally-"i got chewed out by my couch"
using words such as like or as to make a direct comparison between two very different things-"my feet are so cold they feel like popsicles"
giving human-like qualities to something that is not human-"the tired old truck groaned as it inched up the hill
word or words that create a picture in the reader's mind. usually involves the 5 senses -conveys info on characters
when the audience of a drama, play, movie, etc know something that the character doesn't and would be surprised to find out
found in the plot of a book, story, or movie. Sometimes it makes you laugh because its funny how things turn out
atmosphere created by the literature and accomplished through diction or syntax (word order/sentence length/etc)
when apparently contradictory terms are grouped together and suggest a paradox "jumbo shrimp"
aka parallel structure-sentence construction which places equal grammatical constructions near each other, or repeats identical grammatical patterns
repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row. "I came, I saw, I conquered"
two opposite or contrasting words, phrases, or clauses, or even ideas, with parallel structure."it was the best of times, it was the worst of times..."
parentheses are used to set off an idea from the rest of the sentence. it is almost considered a side whisper, and should be used sparingly.
an exaggerated imitation of a serious work for humorous purposes. it borrows words or phrases from an original, and pokes fun at it. this is a form of allusion. EX: snl parodies famous persons and events
the subject of the sentence receives the action. when possible, focus on active voice.
observing struct adherence to formal rules or literal meaning at the expense of a wider view. this can also refer to the author's tone as overly scholarly and academic
art or literature characterized by an idealistic, perhaps unrealistic view of people and the world, and an emphasis on nature. does not rely on traditional themes and structures
a work that reveals a critical attitude toward some element of life to a humorous effect. it targets human vices and follies, or social institutions and conventions. it usually uses wit, irony, parody, caricature, hyperbole, and sarcasm. Funny AND thought provoking
one in which two parallel elements are set off against each other like equal weights on a scale
a complex sentence in which the main clause coomes first and the subordinate clause follows
when the main idea is not completed until the end of the sentence. the writer begins with subordinate elements and postpones the main clause.
states an idea. it does not give a command or request, nor does it ask a question-"the ball is round"
sentences incorporating interrogative pronouns (what, which, who, whom, and whose) "to whom did you kick the ball?"
a writers attitude toward his subject matter revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization
smooth movement from one paragraph (or idea) to another. words and ideas are used to connect two distinct and separate ideas and or paragraphs.
the ironic minimizing of fact, understatement presents something as less significant than it is