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Terms in this set (38)
How do aromatic hydrocarbons bind to targets?
Via Van der Waal's interactions
What do aromatic hydrocarbons tend to form?
The back bone of drug molecules
What influences the solubility of an aromatic hydrocarbon?
The functional group attached to the ring
What types of bonds can alkanes and alkenes form?
Only Van der Waals interactions
Are alkanes and alkenes soluble in water?
What happens when the number of carbons increases in an alkyl chain?
The compound becomes less hydrophilic and more lipophilic
T or F: Halogenated hydrocarbons are generally more hydrophilic than the alkyl form.
False, they are generally more hydrophobic (less hydrophilic)
What kind of bonds can alcohol groups participate in?
Intra-molecular and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding
Alcohol solubility decreases with...
The length of the hydrocarbon
What is the order of alcohols (primary, secondary, tertiary) in increasing solubility?
Primary alcohol, secondary alcohol, tertiary alcohol
Are amines acidic or basic?
They are generally basic in character
What types of bonds do quaternary amines form?
What is the order of amines in increasing solubility?
Tertiary amine, secondary amine, and primary amine
What is a phenol?
An aromatic hydrocarbon with an alcohol substituent
What is a thiol?
A sulfur analogue of alcohol
What is a thioether?
A sulfur equivalent of an ether
What is a sulfoxide?
What is a sulfone?
What is the aldehyde/ketone substituent prefix?
What is the aldehyde substituent suffix?
What is the ketone substituent suffix?
What is the ester substituent suffix?
What is a cyclic ester called?
What is a cyclic amide called?
As the pKa decreases...
The strength of the acid increases
As the pKa increases...
The strength of the base increases
The pKa of a base refers to...
It's conjugate acid
For basic drugs, when is absorption the highest?
When the drug is in unionized form, i.e. at a high pH (intestine)
For acidic drugs, when is absorption the highest?
At a low pH (stomach)
Based solely on pKa values, can you determine whether a compound is acidic or basic?
No, you must be able to interpret it's structure as well
For a weak acid, when the pH = pKa, how much of the compound is ionized?
For a weak acid, when the pH = pKa + 1, how much of the compound is ionized?
For a weak acid, when the pH = pKa + 2, how much of the compound is ionized?
For a weak base, when pH = pKa, how much of the compound is ionized?
For a weak base, when pH = pKa - 1, how much of the compound is ionized?
For a weak base, when pH = pKa - 2, how much of the compound is ionized?
pH = pKa + log([base]/[acid])
What can be done to promote elimination of aspirin through the kidneys when there is perceived toxicity?
Increase the pH of the urine, ionizing aspirin to make it soluble in the urine and able to be excreted
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