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POLS 1101 Exam 1

Exam 1 for POLS 1101 at CSU with Dr. Okoye. Kenneth Dautrich & David Yalof, AMERICAN GOVERNMENT CSU CUSTOM ELECTION EDITION. New York: Cengage, 2009
STUDY
PLAY
Globalization
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
Government
The collection of public institutions in a nation that establish and enforce the rules by which the members of that nation must live.
Social contract
An agreement to form a government and abide by its rules.
Democracy
Form of government in which the people, either directly or through elected representatives, hold power and authority.
Politics
The way in which the institutions of government are organized to make laws, rules, and policies, and how those institutions are influenced.
Equality
The quality of being the same in quantity or measure or value or status
Social equality
Equality and fair treatment of all groups within the various institutions in society that serve the public at large.
Equality of opportunity
The idea that each person is guaranteed the same chance to succeed in life
Political equality
A condition in which members of different groups possess substantially the same rights to participate actively in the political system.
Public goods
Goods, such as clean air and clean water, that everyone consumes and must share
Liberalism
A political orientation that favors a more assertive role in the redistribution of economic resources, but emphasizes individual freedom on a range of social issues.
Conservatism
A political orientation that generally favors government activism in defense of more traditional values on social issues, but favors government restraint in economic redistribution.
Libertarianism
An ideology that cherishes individual liberty and insists on minimal government, promoting a free market economy, a noninterventionist foreign policy, and an absence of regulation in moral, economic, and social life.
Capitalism
Economic system in which all or most of the means of production are privately owned under competitive conditions.
Anarchism
A political theory favoring the abolition of governments.
Socialism
Economic system in which all or most of the means of production are owned by the community as a whole.
Communism
A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.
Communitarian
Referring to the belief in or practice of the superiority of community life or values over individual life, but not necessarily the common ownership of material goods.
Declaration of Independence
Formal document listing colonists' grievances and articulating the colonists' intention to seek independence; formally adopted on July 4, 1776.
Political ideology
A philosophical guide that people use to help translate their values and beliefs into political preferences.
Academic freedom
The freedom of teachers and students to express their ideas in school without religious or political or institutional restrictions.
Freedom
The condition of being free.
Liberty
Freedom of choice.
Order
Established customary state (especially of society).
Republic
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them.
Monarchy
A form of government in which one person, usually a member of a royal family or a royal designate, exercises supreme authority.
Oligarchy
A form of government in which a small exclusive class, which may or may not attempt to rule on behalf of the people as a whole, holds supreme power.
Theocracy
A form of government in which a particular religion or faith plays a dominant role in the government.
Franchise (Suffrage)
The right to vote.
John Locke's theories
People are born with certain natural rights, which derive from natural law, the rules of conduct inherent in the relationship among human beings and thus more fundamental than any law that a governing authority might make.
Natural rights
Rights citizens are born with (including life, liberty, and property) that government cannot take away.
Referendum
A question that appears on the ballot asking voters to approve or reject a policy action either recommended or already approved by the state legislature.
Recall
A ballot measure allowing voters to remove duly elected officials from office prior to the end of their term.
Initiative
A question that goes directly to the voters for approval or rejection without first having been proposed by the state legislature.
Popular sovereignty
The idea that the ultimate source of power in the nation is held by the people.
Representative democracy
A form of government designed by the U.S. Constitution whereby free, open, and regular elections are held to allow citizens to elect individuals who govern on their behalf and who are responsible for making and enforcing public policy.
Direct democracy
A system of government in which all citizens participate in making policy, rules, and governing decisions.
Indirect democracy
A system of government in which citizens elec, A system of government that gives citizens the opportunity to vote for representatives who will work on their behalf.
Political culture
The values and beliefs about government, its purpose, and its operations and institutions that are widely held among citizens in a society.
Substantive democracy
The view that democracy is embodied in the substance of government policies rather than in the policymaking procedure.
Procedural democracy
A form of democracy that is defined by whether or not particular procedures are followed, such as free and fair elections or following a set of laws or a constitution.
Majoritarian
The principle that the choice that is supported by the most voters is the choice that prevails.
Pluralism
The theory that public policy largely results from a variety of interest groups competing with one another to promote laws that benefit members of their respective groups.
Elitism
Political system in which power is concentrated in the hands of a relatively small group of individuals or institutions.
Amendment 1
Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.
Amendment 2
Right to keep and bear arms.
Amendment 3
Prohibits the quartering of troops.
Amendment 4
Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures
Amendment 5
Right to a fair trail, can't be tried twice for the same crime, and you don't have to testify against yourself.
Amendment 6
Right to a fair, speedy trial
Amendment 7
Right to a trial by jury in civil cases
Amendment 8
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Amendment 9
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Amendment 10
Powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved to the states and the people
Amendment 11
Individual cannot sue a state in a federal court.
Amendment 12
Changes in manner of electing president and vice president; procedure when no presidential candidate receives electoral majority
Amendment 13
Prohibition of slavery
Amendment 14
Rights of citizens: 1)all persons born in the united states are granted citizenship, 2) no state can deny any person the equal protection of the laws, 3)no state can deny any person life, liberty, property without due process of law
Amendment 15
No denial of vote because of race, color, previous condition of servitude
Amendment 16
Allows Federal Income Tax
Amendment 17
Senators no longer appointed by state legislatures. Now to be directly elected by citizens.(1913)
Amendment 18
Prohibition of alcoholic beverages - banned making, selling, or transporting of alcoholic beverages
Amendment 19
Women's right to vote
Amendment 20
Presidential/VP/congressional terms of office begin in Jan; New meeting dates for Congress; Emergency presidential and VP succession
Amendment 21
Repealed prohibition and voided the 18th amendment (1933)
Amendment 22
(Presidential Term Limits) Limits the president to two terms or a maximum of ten years
Amendment 23
Right to vote for president in District of Columbia
Amendment 24
Abolition of Poll Tax in National Elections
Amendment 25
Established process for president to pass on duties if he/she is unable to serve. Gose to Vice-President,vacancy in Vice-Presidency is filled by appointment from president (approved by congress)
Amendment 26
Voting age lowered to 18.
Amendment 27
Provides that Congress' member can't increase their salary until the next election.
Sovereignty
The supreme political power of a government to regulate its affairs without outside interference.
Confederation
A system of government in which two or more independent states unite to achieve certain specified common aims.
Federalism
The doctrine underlying a system of government in which power is divided between a central government and constituent political subunits.
Cooperative federalism
The doctrine of federalism that affords Congress nearly unlimited authority to exercise its powers through means that often coerce states into administering and/or enforcing federal policies.
Dual federalism
The doctrine of federalism that holds that state authority acts as a limit on congressional power under the Constitution.
States' rights
The right of states to limit the power of the federal government.
Grants-in-aid
Grants from the federal government to states that allow state governments to pursue specific federal policies, such as highway construction.
Home rule
Self-government in local matters by a city or county that is part of a national government.
Virginia plan
A proposal that empowered three separate branches of government, including a legislature with membership proportional to population.
New Jersey plan
A proposal that would have retained the Articles of Confederation principle of a legislature where states enjoyed equal representation.
Three-Fifths Compromise
A compromise proposal in which five slaves would be counted as the equivalent of three free people for purposes of taxes and representation.
Connecticut plan
The Great Compromise; bicameral congress with equal representation in one house and proportional representation in the other house.
Article 1
Article of the Constitution that defines the Legislative Branch, it's powers, members, and workings.
Article 2
Article of the Constitution that defines the Executive Branch, it's powers, duties, and means of removal.
Article 3
Article of the Constitution that sets up the Judicial Branch and defines treason.
Amendment process
step 1: amendment proposed by 2/3 vote of both houses of congress OR a constitutional convention called by congress on petition of 2/3 out of 50 states. THEN amendment ratified by 3/4 of the 50 state legislatures OR 3/4 of special constitutional conventions called by 50 states THEN the new amendment!
Enumerated powers
Express powers explicitly granted by the Constitution such as the taxing power specifically granted to Congress.
Reserved powers
Those powers expressly retained by the state governments under the Constitution.
Concurrent powers
Those powers shared by the federal and state governments under the Constitution.
Necessary and proper clause
The clause in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution that affords Congress the power to make laws that serve as a means to achieving its expressly delegated powers.
Implied powers
Powers that congress has that are not stated explicitly in the constitution.
Supremacy clause
The provision in Article VI, Clause 2 of the Constitution that provides that the Constitution and federal laws override any conflicting provisions in state constitutions or state laws.
Full faith and credit clause
The provision in Article IV, Section 1 of the Constitution that forces states to abide by the official acts and proceedings of all other states.
Elastic clause
The final paragraph of Article I, Section 8, of the constitution, which authorizes congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers.
Commerce clause
The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.
States needed to ratify original Constitution
Two-thirds, or nine states.
Separation of powers
The principle that each branch of government enjoys separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility.
Federalist essays
A series of articles which argued in favor of ratifying the proposed Constitution of the United States.
Universal suffrage
The idea that all citizens in a nation have the right to vote.
First state to ratify the Constitution
Delaware
Devolution
The transfer of power and responsibilities for certain regulatory programs from the federal government back to the states.
Mandate
A document giving an official instruction or command.
Unfunded mandate
A directive from the federal government to the states requiring that they perform certain functions, with no accompanying funds to support those functions.
Public opinion
The summation of individual opinions on any particular issue or topic.
Gallup opinion poll
The division of Gallup that regularly conducts public opinion polls in more than 140 countries around the world. Gallup Polls are often referenced in the mass media as a reliable and objective measure of public opinion.
Public opinion poll
A method of measuring the opinions of a large group of people by asking questions of a subset of the larger group and then generalizing the findings to the larger group.
Beliefs
The facts derived from values that people take for granted about the world.
Values
The broad principles underlying the American political culture; they represent that which people find most important in life.
Federal Communications Commission
Established in 1934 with the authority to regulate radio, television, and interstate telephone companies.
Gatekeeping
The process by which a relatively small number of people in the media industry control what material eventually reaches the audience.
Horse race journalism
Election coverage by the mass media that focuses on which candidate is ahead rather than on national issues.
Sensationalism
The use of exciting or shocking stories or language at the expense of accuracy, in order to provoke public interest and excitement.
Watchdog journalism
Journalism that scrutinizes public and business institutions and publicizes perceived misconduct.
Fourth branch
The media or the people, such as interest groups.
Market-driven journalism
Both reporting news and turning commercials geared to a target audience defined by demographic characteristics.
Blog
A shared on-line journal where people can post diary entries about their personal experiences and hobbies.
Digital divide
The large differences in usage of the Internet between older and younger people, lower- and middle/upper-class people, lesser and better educated people, and minority groups and non-minority groups.
Generation gap
The cultural seperation between children and their parents.
Political socialization
The process by which an individual acquires values, beliefs, and opinions about politics.
Agents of political socialization
Factors that have a significant impact on an individual's socialization to politics.
Primacy tendency
The theory that impressions acquired while an individual is younger is likely to be more influential and longer lasting.
Social learning theory
The theory that viewers imitate what they view on television through observational learning.
Agenda setting theory
The theory that holds that although the effects of television exposure may be minimal or difficult to gauge, the media are quite influential in telling the public what to think about.
Minimal effects theory
The theory that deep-seated, long-term political attitudes have much greater influence on an individual's vote decisions than does news media coverage.
Unicameralism
Political system consisting of one legislative chamber.
Bicameralism
The division of a legislature into two separate assemblies.
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review.
McCulloch v. Maryland
The case that established that Congress enjoys broad and extensive authority to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out its constitutionally delegated powers.
Sample
A relatively small proportion of people who are chosen in a survey so as to be representative of the whole.
Straw poll
An unscientific poll that gathers the opinions of people who are conveniently available in a gathering place.
Pseudo-poll
Phone calls from members of political campaigns of PACS who present themselves as pollsters for the purpose of planting messages with voters rather than measuring public opinion.
Scientific sample
A randomly selected subgroup drawn from a population using probability theory.
Random sampling
A method of poll selection that gives each person in a group the same chance of being selected.
Sampling error
The amount of error in a poll that results from interviewing a sample of people rather than the whole population under study; the larger the sample, the less the sampling error.
Equal time rule
The FCC mandate that radio and TV stations offer equal amounts of airtime to all political candidates who want to broadcast advertisements.
Continuity
A tendency for political preferences to remain generally stable over time.
Intensity
The degree of strength or commitment the public feels about the opinion it holds.
Direction
A tendency toward a particular preference, usually characterized as either positive or negative.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
The case that ruled that slaves were property and could not sue.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
The federal law that invalidated literacy tests and property requirements and required select states and cities to apply for permission to the Justice Department to change their voting laws. As a consequence, millions of African Americans were effectively reenfranchised in the South.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The federal law that banned racial discrimination in all public accommodations; prohibited discrimination by employers and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to investigate complaints of discrimination; and denied public funds to schools that continued to discriminate on the basis of race.
Literacy test
The requirement that individuals prove that they can read and write before being allowed to vote.
Poll tax
The requirement that individuals pay a fee before being allowed to vote.
Social capital
The "social connectedness" of a community, or the extent to which individuals are socially integrated into their community.
Motor Voter law
The federal law that mandates that when an individual applies for or renews a state driver's license, the state must also provide that individual with voter registration materials.
First president to use radio
Calvin Coolidge