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Chapter 19 - Oriana Molland
Terms in this set (51)
A shift in population toward cities corresponds to the rise of industrialization and was also a consequence of industrialization. While cities like Chicago and San Francisco rapidly expanded, they were also plagued with overpopulation, pollution, and unsanitary conditions. Rapid urbanization also furthered immigrants who came to the cities in search of jobs and economic opportunities.
Push/pull factors are the fundamental forces that drive migration and immigration.
Conditions that draw people to another location are known as pull factors. These include economic opportunities, chance for better life, better education, and healthcare, etc.
Conditions that cause people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region are known as push factors. These include terrible conditions in homeland, persecution, economic depression, etc.
These were immigrants that came during the first phase of immigration during the 1840s. The old immigrants were usually comprised of Irish and German backgrounds. These people were second generation, which meant that they had already assimilated into America, gotten into politics, and opened their own shops. Their position in government and hypocritical nature made them hostile to new immigrants, passing laws against them.
The New Immigrants of the 1880s came primarily from southern and eastern Europe. They came from countries with little history of democratic government, where people had grown accustomed to harsh living conditions. Some Americans feared that the New Immigrants would not assimilate to the American lifestyle and began to question if the nation had become a melting pot or a dumping ground.
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy (these included signs of STD's or infection). Some were turned down due to lack of money while others were denied for no particular reason.
The immigration station on the west coast where Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese gained admission to the U.S. at San Francisco Bay. Between 1910 and 1940, some 50 thousand Chinese immigrants entered through Angel Island. Questioning and conditions at Angel Island were much harsher than Ellis Island in New York and it took much longer to get clearance to enter the nation through Angel Island.
Legal but inadequate multifamily tenements or rooming houses; some are custom built for rent to poor people, others are converted from some other use.
City slum areas inhabited by minority groups living there due to social or economic pressures.
Neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs. Many immigrants chose to settle in areas where their compatriots were more prevalent. This helped form many tightly bonded communities within a city and its effect is still seen today in areas like NYC (Lil'Italy, Lil'Havana, China Town, etc.).
A set of social ideas embraced by the priveleged classes of England and America during the long reign of Britain's Queen Victoria. The Victorian morality espoused ideas of sexual restraint, low tolerance of crime and a strict social code of conduct. It also emphasized the need for manners (especially in a table setting) and the importance of one's sophistication to establish their socical class.
A noted educator, renowned for her forthright opinions on women's education as well as her vehement support of the many benefits of the incorporation of a kindergarten into children's education. With her initiatives, the teaching profession began to become widely undertaken by women.
The Cult of Domesticity
A prevailing value system among the upper and middle classes during the nineteenth century in Western cultures. The Cult of Domesticity identified the home as women's "proper sphere". Prescriptive literature advised women on how to transform their homes into domestic sanctuaries for their husbands and children. Women were put in the center of the domestic sphere and were expected to fulfill the roles of a calm and nurturing mother, a loving and faithful wife, and a passive, delicate, and virtuous creature. These women were also expected to be pious and religious, teaching those around them by their Christian beliefs, and expected to unfailingly inspire and support their husbands. Furthermore, with the advent of Victorian morals, women also became expected to pass down good manner and beautify their homes with various themed arts.
The acknowledged leader of a political machine, who may or may not occupy a public office. The boss had an amazing amount of influence due to his large number of contacts and was well liked by the majority (mostly poor) due to his claim that his "true" purpose was to fight on the behalf of the poor. Bosses were plagued with corruption and typically hurt the government more so than benefiting them.
A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity. Political machines did anything within their power to retain their dominance including extortion and threatening/persecuting those who went against the machine's cause. Some of the machines that were being established throughout the nation weren't even official political parties; rather they ran on the pretense of a party group.
Boss William M. Tweed
Tweed was once the biggest political figure in NYC and headed the notorious Tammany Hall machine. He was responsible for many scandals filled with claims of extortion and contract padding. Due to his corrupt ways, Tweed was sentenced to jail. He managed to escape to Spain but was ultimately recaptured and died in jail in 1878.
A famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. His artwork was primarily based on political corruption. He helped people realize the corruption of some politicians (especially of Boss Tween and his Tammany Hall crew). The use of cartoons were especially effective because it could be understood by large number of people, regardless of if they were literate or not.
A Danish immigrant, who became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote one of the most read books: "How The Other Half Lives" in 1890 to truly expose the horrendous conditions of immigrants and encourage more action to be taken on their behalf.
A political machine headed by William Marcy Tweed. It used graft, bribery, and rigged elections to bilk the city of over $200 million. Some of this money went to create public jobs that helped people and the local economy. Some went into constructing public buildings at hugely inflated expense (with the machine's leaders pocketing extra dollars). In 1871, the New York Times published sufficient evidence of misuse of public funds to eventually convict Boss Tweed.
Young Men's Christian Organization
YMCA came from England in the 1850's and grew rapidly to respond to human needs, devoting themselves to community service and to care of the unfortunate. The YMCA had facilities for social programs, gyms, libraries, etc. It developed due to the social problems of the crowded cities and sought to provide for those who weren't really catered to or looked after.
This welfare organization came to the US from England in 1880 and sought to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality. It adopted a military style program but used it to spread goodness rather than violence and war.
Charity Organization Society
Founded in 1882 by Josephine Shaw Lowell. It was a more scientific approach to make aid to the poor through efficency. The organization divided NYC into districts and sent "friendly visitors" into tenements to counsel families on how to improve their lives. They believed moral deficiencies laid at the root of poverty and promiscuous charity undermined the desire to work; accused of being more interested in controlling the poor than helping them.
The Social Gospel
A movement that believed that the church and society were obligated to help the less fortunate and wanted more government regulation. The social gospel mostly blamed the poor's plight to the rich and felt that the rich should be obligated to give back to the poor and do more philanthropic work.
New York clergyman who basically initiated the Social Gospel movement. Him alongside other clergy men as well as some middle class worked to alleviate poverty, and worked to make peace between employers and labor unions.
Settlement House Movement
Social movement designed to get the rich and poor in society to live more closely together. Settlement houses were located in poorer neighborhoods and staffed by middle class workers who hoped to share their knowledge and alleviate poverty. Many immigrants also used the settlement houses as a form of way to socialize as well as develop skills to help them succeeed.
She was the founder of Settlement House Movement and established the Hull House in Chicago. She was the first American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom. Addams also stressed the importance in providing the poor immigrants the opportunity to develop new and use skills.
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
Active in the settlement house movement and led progressive labor reforms for women and children. She initially worked under Jane Addams as a resident of the Hull House.
Saloons was the poor man's way to interact with others. Most went in to meet familiar faces, hang out. Saloon keepers played an important role in politics as they were in regular contact with the neighborhood. When temperance acts formed, saloons fought for their right to be established and gained support from many political machines.
Professional sports of the Gilded Age
Baseball was the first org. team sport in 1845 and modern form of baseball took shape in 1860s with the Cincinnati Red Stockings. The National League formed and baseball became popular with the working class. Newspapers thrived on it as interest in newspaper increased.
Horse racing w/ races like the Kentucky Derby for the rich; boxing aroused passionate devotion among the working class with popular heavyweight fighter John L. Sullivan.
Football became a classic college sport and gave many young men an escape to take their anger out. No padding and violence sparked controversy but the football tradition didn't falter.
Barnum and Bailey
Ringmasters who, through their showmanship in the 1880s, pushed the circus to become "the greatest show on earth." Circus became a great past time in the late 19th century and early 20th century and the cheaper programs especially provided the poor a form of relief and a way to alleviate tension.
A type of inexpensive variety show that first appeared in the 1870s, often consisting of comic sketches, song-and-dance routines, and magic acts.
Created as a way for working-class people to temporarily escape the hardships of the working, Coney Island became an amusement park with rides and attractions that contrasted the grim realities many were living in the city. The Coney Island to this day remains a popular tourist attraction visited by millions.
Dance halls enabled Americans to socialize outside the family structure. The dance hall culture allowed for the liberating influence of jazz music, though many dance halls remained segregated. For example, Harlem's "Cotton Club" featured African-American performers but only served white patrons. Popular with young working-class immigrant communities. Dance halls also played a role in the bringing in of a new era with the introduction of "Rolling 20's"
A type of music featuring melodies with shifting accents over a steady, marching-band beat; originated among black musicians in the south and Midwest in the 1880's. This would lead to jazz music and blues.
United States composer who was the first creator of ragtime to write down his compositions (1868-1917). He was known as the "Father of Ragtime." His record "Maple Leaf Rag" was one of the earliest recordings to be paid in terms of copy sold instead of a one-time payment.
Charles E. Norton
He led group of upper-class writers and magazine editors and was a Harvard art history professor. He was responsible for the codifiying of the Victorian standards in literature and the fine arts in a campaign to improve Amer. His tastes in interior furnishings, textiles, ceramics,wallpaper were highly influential and his books led to a set up guidelines for serious literature.
Argued in "The Nation" that the financial sucess of the middle and upper class was linked to their supieror talent, intelligence, mortality and self control. Much like the social darwinists, Godkin also saw depression as a natural part of the business cycle that would kill off the weak and leave the strong standing.
Crane wrote the Red Badge of Courage, a war novel centered around the story of a young Union private. He was an American novelist, short story writer, poet, journalist.
His style and technique focused on naturalism, realism, impressionism and his themes were centered around: ideals v. realities, spiritual crisis, and fears.
Master of satire. A regionalist writer who gave his stories "local color" through dialects and detailed descriptions. His works include The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, "The Amazing Jumping Frog of Calaverus County," and stories about the American West. Twain was also vehemently critiqued his time period and coined the phrase "The Gilded Age" to describe the superficiality that surrounded era.
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be. Charles Darwin was a popular British novelist who wrote realistic stories about the plight of the unprivileged as well.
A literary branch of realism which suggested that social conditions, heredity, and environment helped to shape human character, 1865-1900. Honore de Balzac, Upton Sinclair are examples.
An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing. Monet's works are today considered to be some of the most recognized impressionist work.
He was the first black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard and he encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination. He was also the one to help create National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910, an organization that recognizes black's academic excellence.
An American economist and social scientist who sought to apply an evolutionary, dynamic approach to the study of economic institutions. With The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) he won fame in literary circles, and, in describing the life of the wealthy, he coined phrases—conspicuous consumption and pecuniary emulation—that are still widely used.
Frank Lloyd Wright
A revolutionary architect, who is also considered America's greatest architect. He pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs. By following this principle, Wright was able to create many unique architectural feats that have yet to be replicated with same ingenuity and desing.
Women's Christian Temperance Unicion
This women's union called for the national prohibition of alcohol and was led by Frances E. Willard and Carrie A. Nation. Although their efforts would not originally successful, their ideals would still carry on with the passing of the 18th amendment that banned alcohol consumption all together.
She was the founder of the WCTU as well as the Dean of Women at Northwestern University. She also served as the president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) for nearly 20 years.
General Federation of Women's Clubs
Founded in 1890, this was an international women's organization dedicated to community improvement by enhancing the lives of others through volunteer service. GFWC is one of the world's largest and oldest nonpartisan, nondenominational, women's volunteer service organizations.
A woman of the turn of the 20th century often from the middle class who dressed practically, moved about freely, lived apart from her family, and supported herself. The New Woman took on various urban jobs that offered more pay and requires an adequate amount of prior skills. These jobs usually comprised of teaching, secretary/desk jobs, as well as typing/typist.
A major feminist prophet during the late 19th and early 20th century. She published "Women and Economics" which called on women to abandon their dependent status and contribute more to the community through the economy. She created centralized nurseries and kitchens to help get women into the work force. She encouraged combining cooking and child care arrangements to promote women's economic independence and equality (doing things that is considered socially acceptable combined with a means to earn some money).
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