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Name the four atmospheric layers (from lowest to highest) that are distinguished by their temperature profiles.
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
The _________ of any substance is the amount of mass of the substance contained in a unit of volume.
The aurora borealis and aurora australis (northern and southern lights) are caused by the interaction between charged particles and Earth's magnetic field. Which layer of Earth's atmosphere contains these particles?
Why is ozone primarily important in the troposphere?
It is a pollutant, affecting vegetation and respiration.
Which three gases constitute most of the gas (over 98%) in the atmosphere near Earth's surface?
If the temperature of an object increases, what will the radiation emitted by it do?
increase and shift toward dominantly shorter wavelengths
What are the three means by which energy is transferred in the atmosphere?
convection, radiation, and conduction
About _________ of the incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere actually reaches Earth's surface
If air molecules selectively scattered only the longest wavelengths of visible light, the color of the sky would be
The amount of energy needed to produce a given temperature change per unit mass of the substance is known as
Thermodynamic diagrams (such as the Stuve) depict the vertical profiles of temperature and _________ with height above the surface.
When light strikes a mirror, it is reflected back as a beam of equal intensity in a manner known as
Because of the absence of preference for any particular wavelength, scattering by clouds is sometimes called
Net radiation is the end result of the absorption of insolation and the absorption and radiation of longwave radiation. The surface has a net radiation surplus of ____ units.
The figure representing January-July Temperature Differences reveals that the difference between the two months is approximately _____ at the equator.
According to the figure of January-July Temperature Differences, the region under the greatest influence of continentality has a difference of _____ between the two months.
According to the Stuve diagram, the temperature and dew-point initially coincide at approximately _____ mb of pressure.
The peak wavelength of energy emitted by the Sun is about 0.5 microns. According to Wien's Law, the temperature of the Sun's surface should be
According to the Stefan-Boltzmann Law, if the absolute temperature of an object doubles, the maximum energy emitted goes up by a factor of
mixture of gas molecules microscopical small suspended particles of solid and liquid and falling precipitation
the spatial analysis of all the physical elements and processes that make up the environment
water constantly cycled between the planet and the atmosphere ..water eventually condenses to form liquid droplets and ice crystals
length of time that individual molecules of a given substance remain in the atmosphere
form of oxygen in which three O atams are joined to form a single molecule and is essential to life on earth because it absorbs lethal ultraviolet radiation from the sun
extends to a height of about (80km) 50 mi and temp in the mesosphere decreases with altitude
energy that a body possesses by virtue of its position with respect to other bodies in the field of gravity
rate at witch solar energy is received on a surface at the outer edge of the atmosphere
where the sun rays meets the surface at a right angle and the sun appears directly overhead
the increase in the surface area over which radiation is distributed in response to a decrease of solar angle.
microscopic aerosol particles are considerably larger than air molecule and scatter longer wavelengths. exampe...seasalt and ash
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